Unit11 - Unit 11 in Entomology[1 Unit 11 Insect...

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Unit 11 in Entomology [1] Unit 11: Insect Parasitism [2] In this unit, we’ll differentiate between the three types of symbiosis, describe the different ways to classify parasites, discuss the costs and benefits of endo versus ecto parasitism, differentiate between parasite and parasitoid, define hyper, multiple and gregarious parasitoids, and explain in insect terms why being small is actually good. We’ll discuss more about parasites, but for the time being, take a look at the photographs below. Both of these are lice that can be found on chickens. One is found on the body and one is found on the feathers. Take a look at the morphological differences. Why do you think they’re shaped so differently? These are some things to think about as we discuss insect parasitism. [3] In this unit, we’ll discuss insects that parasitize humans, mammals, and other arthropods. You will first learn the difference in three symbiotic relationships, and between parasite/parasitoid, parasitoid/predator, and about various endo and ecto parasites. Prepare yourself for some repugnant pictures that illustrate some damage that insect parasites can do to other animals. [4] Symbiotic relationships refer to interactions between two different species. In fact, when broken into its Greek roots, the word symbiotic means “life together”. Sym means together and bio means life. In this unit you’ll first learn about three different types of symbiotic relationships: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. The balance of the unit will then focus on various aspects of parasitism. These terms are generally used to describe the relationship between species, but can also be used for interactions within a species, particularly humans. Mutualistic relationships are those in which both species involved benefit. For example, most friendships are a mutualistic relationship. As you can see in this picture, ants and aphids have a special mutualistic relationship. The aphids feed the ants by secreting a sugary solution called honeydew through cornicles on the tip of their abdomen. These ants, in return, protect the aphid by attacking predators such as ladybugs. [5] The second type of relationship is commensalism. In commensal relationships, one species benefits but the other neither profits nor is harmed. In this picture, orchids are growing on the side of a tree. The orchid needs the tree for support and protection, but the tree doesn’t benefit, not is it harmed, by the orchid’s presence. Relationships in which one species benefits at the expense of the other is a parasitic relationship. A good example of this is a mosquito and a human relationship. As pictured here, this mosquito has inserted her mouth part into a human to draw out a blood meal. The human will have a nice itchy lump where the mosquito has injected its poison, but the mosquito will use the protein it got from the blood to make her eggs.
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