Unit13 - Unit 13 in Entomology [1] We briefly discussed...

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Unit 13 in Entomology [1] We briefly discussed insecticides in the unit on insect pest management. Now we'll take a closer look. Unit 13: insecticides. [2] The objectives of this unit are to relate four major events in the history of pest control, describe the major types of insecticides and give examples of each, describe in detail how organophosphates and carbamates interfere with the normal functioning of nerves, describe how toxicity of insecticides is measured, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using an insecticide. [3] During the last part of the 20th century, the use of insecticides has become a highly debated topic because both good and bad can come from insecticide use. Insecticides are an important tool farmers use to produce the quantity and quality of food the world’s consumers need and desire. Environmentalists seek to protect us and our environment from the unwanted and often dangerous impact insecticides can have. The word insecticide refers directly to those chemicals that kill insects. The term pesticide is a broader term meaning a killer of pests in general. This can include fungicides, herbicides, miticides, rodenticides, avicides, insecticides, etc. An insecticide is a pesticide. These two terms will be used interchangeably throughout this unit. [4] Pest control has a long and interesting history that appears to have begun around 2500 BC when the Sumerians began using sulfur as an insecticide. By the way, sulfur based insecticides are still used today and around the time of Christ, the Chinese and Egyptians were using herbs and oils to control insect pests. By 300 B.C., the Chinese started to monitor the emergence of pests and regulate when they planted their crops to avoid certain pests. Between 1100 and 1600 A.D. the Chinese started using soaps, tobacco and arsenic to control pests. These are techniques that, again, are used today. As people began coming to the New World to settle and international trade increased, it became apparent that foreign insects were being introduced. In the 1800s countries started regulating and quarantining goods to inspect for pests before the goods could be unloaded and sold. In 1899, the world had its first major biological control success. The cottony cushion scale insect almost destroyed the citrus industry in California during the late 1800s. Albert Kebele was sent to Australia, where the scale had originated, to find its natural predator. There, he found Vidalia beetles. The Vidalia beetles were feeding on the cottony cushion scale so he brought back a population and released the beetles in California. Within a few years it had reduced the scale population to noneconomic levels. [5] The development of synthetic insecticides around 1939 began what can be called the insecticide era. The importance of this event was quickly manifest with the outbreak of World War II.
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Unit13 - Unit 13 in Entomology [1] We briefly discussed...

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