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Subscriber access provided by University of Florida | Smathers Libraries Chemical Reviews is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Review Engineering Biomaterials for Synthetic Neural Stem Cell Microenvironments Lauren Little, Kevin E. Healy, and David Schaffer Chem. Rev. , 2008 , 108 (5), 1787-1796 • DOI: 10.1021/cr078228t • Publication Date (Web): 14 May 2008 Downloaded from on January 5, 2009 More About This Article Additional resources and features associated with this article are available within the HTML version: Supporting Information Links to the 1 articles that cite this article, as of the time of this article download Access to high resolution figures Links to articles and content related to this article Copyright permission to reproduce figures and/or text from this article
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Engineering Biomaterials for Synthetic Neural Stem Cell Microenvironments Lauren Little, Kevin E. Healy,* ,‡,§ and David Schaffer* ,†,‡, | Departments of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, and Material Science and Engineering and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1760 Received February 13, 2008 Contents 1. Introduction 1787 2. In Vitro Studies 1789 2.1. Natural Surfaces and Gels 1789 2.1.1. Collagen 1789 2.1.2. Other ECM Molecules 1790 2.1.3. Calcium Alginate 1791 2.2. Semisynthetic Surfaces and Gels 1791 2.3. Fully Synthetic Surfaces and Gels 1792 2.3.1. Self-Assembling Peptides and Peptide Amphiphiles 1792 2.3.2. Synthetic Polymers 1793 3. In Vivo Studies 1793 4. Conclusions 1794 5. List of Abbreviations 1794 6. Acknowledgments 1794 7. References 1795 1. Introduction Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been isolated from various species s such as mice, rats, and humans s and from numerous regions in the developing and adult nervous system s including the subventricular zone (SVZ), the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, the cortical neuroepithelium, and the spinal cord. 1–8 In vivo, the NSC is encompassed by a microenviron- ment or niche that presents it with a repertoire of diffusible factors, 6,9,10 cell - cell interactions, 11,12 and extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands that bind to cellular receptors and thereby modulate signaling and gene expression (Figure 1). 13–15 Ulti- mately, these soluble and solid-phase components of the niche collectively regulate cell behavior and function s including mitosis, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. 6,16–24 NSCs have therapeutic potential to treat disorders and injuries such as Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and diseases and injuries of the spinal cord. 25–32 In cell transplantation therapies, NSCs have survived in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS), including the striatum, hippocampus, ventricles, SVZ, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum, 26,33–37 and have shown promising results when implanted at the injured/diseased sites in animal models for numerous diseases and injury, such as Sly disease, myelin degeneration, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury.
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