Paper4-Interplay-of-biomaterials-and-micro-scale-technologies-for-advancing-biomedical-applications-

Paper4-Interplay-of-biomaterials-and-micro-scale-technologies-for-advancing-biomedical-applications-

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J. Biomater. Sci. Polymer Edn , Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 1221–1240 (2006) VSP 2006. Also available online - www.brill.nl/jbs Review Interplay of biomaterials and micro-scale technologies for advancing biomedical applications ALI KHADEMHOSSEINI 1 , 2 , , CHRIS BETTINGER 3 , JEFFREY M. KARP 4 , JUDY YEH 5 , YIBO LING 1 , 6 , JEFFREY BORENSTEIN 7 , JUNJI FUKUDA 4 , and ROBERT LANGER 1 , 3 , 4 1 Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 2 Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 3 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 5 Division of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 6 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 7 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Received 20 February 2006; accepted 7 June 2006 Abstract —Micro-scale technologies have already dramatically changed our society through their use in the microelectronics and telecommunications industries. Today these engineering tools are also useful for many biological applications ranging from drug delivery to DNA sequencing, since they can be used to fabricate small features at a low cost and in a reproducible manner. The discovery and development of new biomaterials aid in the advancement of these micro-scale technologies, which in turn contribute to the engineering and generation of new, custom-designed biomaterials with desired properties. This review aims to present an overview of the merger of micro-scale technologies and biomaterials in two-dimensional (2D) surface patterning, device fabrication and three-dimensional (3D) tissue-engineering applications. Key words : BioMEMS; biomaterials; surface patterning; micro-fluidics; tissue engineering; review. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected] Present address: Room 3F528, Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan.
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1222 A. Khademhosseini et al. INTRODUCTION Microfabrication technology was first developed for the semiconductor/micro- electronics industry and was then adapted to the field of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for fabrication of microsensors and other microdevices in the 1980s and 1990s. MEMS technology can be used to generate features at length scales ranging from a few tens of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers in a reproducible manner. In the past few years there has been much interest in the use of MEMS for biomedical applications in order to miniaturize diagnostic devices and to facilitate high-throughput experimentation. As a result of this widespread interest in the biomedical and biological applications of MEMS, the field of BioMicro- Electro-Mechanical Systems (BioMEMS) has emerged [1]. BioMEMS is defined
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