Paper57-Construction-collagen-scaffolds-3D-structure-Tissue-Eng-13(10)-Faraj-et-al-2007

Paper57-Construction-collagen-scaffolds-3D-structure-Tissue-Eng-13(10)-Faraj-et-al-2007

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Construction of Collagen Scaffolds That Mimic the Three-Dimensional Architecture of SpeciFc Tissues KAEUIS A. FARAJ, Ph.D., 1,2 TOIN H. VAN KUPPEVELT, Ph.D., 1 and WILLEKE F. DAAMEN, Ph.D. 1 ABSTRACT Every tissue and organ has its own 3-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. Cells in a 3D bioscaffold for tissue engineering typically align new ECM components according to the bioscaffold provided. Therefore, scaffolds with a speci±c 3D structural design resembling the actual ECM of a par- ticular tissue may have great potential in tissue engineering. Here, we show that, using speci±c freezing regimes, 3D scaffolds that mimic the 3D architecture of speci±c tissues can be made from collagen. Three examples are given, namely, scaffolds resembling the cup-shaped parenchymal (alveolar) architecture of lung, scaffolds that mimic the parallel collagen organization of tendon, and scaffolds that mimic the 3D organization of skin. For the preparation of these tissue-speci±c scaffolds, we relied on simple techniques without the need for expensive or customized equipment. Freezing rate, type of suspension medium, and additives (e.g., ethanol) were found to be prime parameters in controlling scaffold morphology. INTRODUCTION T HE ORGANIZATION O± THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM), which comprises many different molecules, including proteins and proteoglycans, principally provides the basic architecture of a tissue. The body uses one group of pro- teins, the collagens and in particular type I collagen, as the main scaffold material. Collagens are the most ubiqui- tous and abundant components in mammals and provide strength and structural integrity to all organs, including skin, tendon, and bone. Type I collagen has been used as a biomaterial in a variety of applications because of a number of useful properties, including low antigenicity and appropriate mechanical char- acteristics. Concerns such as mechanical properties and bio- chemical characteristics are usually well addressed in the Feld of (collagen) scaffolding. 1–5 However, one concern is frequently overlooked: the 3-dimensional (3D) structural design. The orientation of collagen Fbers and Fbrils is of crucial importance for the functioning of organs and tissues and plays a decisive role in their biomechanical properties. 6 ±orinstance, intendoncollagen, Fbrilsareordered inahighly parallel alignment, thus providing great tensile strength. In skin, the collagen Fbrils are oriented in a wavy, meandering way, thus allowing the skin to stretch but preventing over- stretching. In the lung, collagen Fbrils form a delicate, cup- like matrix, giving lung alveoli their shape and sustaining the process of gas exchange. We have previously shown that cells in a 3D bioscaffold typically synthesize their new ECM molecules following the presented scaffold (±ig. 1).
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Paper57-Construction-collagen-scaffolds-3D-structure-Tissue-Eng-13(10)-Faraj-et-al-2007

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