chemical+periodicity - Principles of General Chemistry, 2nd...

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Chemical Periodicity Principles of General Chemistry, 2 nd ed. By M. Silberberg Chemistry, 8th ed. by W. Whitten, R. Davis, R., M. L. Peck, and G. Stanley. 2 Lecture Goals 1. More About the Periodic Table Periodic Properties of the Elements 2. Atomic Radii 3. Ionic Radii 4. Ionization Energy 5. Electron Affinity 6. Electronegativity 3 Periodic Table • Arranged by Dmitri Mendeliv, a Russian Chemist • Establish a classification scheme of the elements based on their electron configurations. Column: FAMILY or GROUP Row: PERIOD • Certain characteristics are shared by each 4 More About the Periodic Table Noble Gases – have completely filled electron shells • since they have similar electronic structures, their chemical reactions are similar. – He 1s 2 – Ne [He] 2s 2 2p 6 – Ar [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 – Kr [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 – Xe [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 – Rn [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 5 More About the Periodic Table Representative Elements – are the elements in A groups on periodic chart. • will have their “last” electron in an outer s or p orbital • have fairly regular variations in their properties 6 More About the Periodic Table d -Transition Elements – on periodic chart in B groups • each metal has d electrons. – n s (n-1) d configurations • make the transition from metals to nonmetals • exhibit smaller variations from row-to-row than the representative elements
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7 More About the Periodic Table f - transition metals – sometimes called inner transition metals • have electrons in f orbitals & are being added two shells below the valence shell • very slight variations of properties from one element to another. The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids – The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. • Groups or families – Vertical group of elements on periodic table – Similar chemical and physical properties The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids • Period – Horizontal group of elements on periodic table – Transition from metals to nonmetals The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Some chemical properties 1. Outer shells contain few electrons 2. Form cations by losing electrons 3. Form ionic compounds with nonmetals 4. Solid state characterized by metallic bonding Metals • Group IA metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr • example of a periodic trend – their reactions with water The Alkali Metals
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• Group IIA metals • Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
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This note was uploaded on 07/24/2011 for the course CHEM 16 taught by Professor Siao during the Spring '07 term at University of the Philippines Diliman.

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chemical+periodicity - Principles of General Chemistry, 2nd...

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