gas+laws - Principles of General Chemistry, 2nd ed. By M....

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Gases and the Kinetic Molecular Theory Principles of General Chemistry, 2 nd ed. By M. Silberberg Chemistry, 8th ed. by W. Whitten, R. Davis, R., M. L. Peck, and G. Stanley. 2 Chapter Goals 1. Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 2. Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases 3. Pressure 4. Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship 5. Charles’ Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship; The Absolute Temperature Scale 6. Standard Temperature and Pressure 7. The Combined Gas Law Equation 8. Avogadro’s Law and the Standard Molar Volume 3 CHAPTER GOALS 9. Summary of Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation 10. Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular Formulas of Gaseous Substances 11. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 12. Mass-Volume Relationships in Reactions Involving Gases 13. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 14. Diffusion and Effusion of Gases 15. Real Gases: Deviations from Ideality 4 Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases • The density of gases is much less than that of solids or liquids. Densities (g/mL) Solid Liquid Gas H 2 O 0.917 0.998 0.000588 CCl 4 1.70 1.59 0.00503 5 Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases r Gas molecules must be very far apart compared to liquids and solids. 6 Composition of the Atmosphere Gas % by Volume N 2 78.09 O 2 20.94 Ar 0.93 CO 2 0.03 He, Ne, Kr, Xe 0.002 CH 4 0.00015 H 2 0.00005 Dry Air
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7 Pressure - force per unit area –lb/in 2 –N/m 2 Some Common Properties of Gases 8 Pressure • Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer. • Definitions of standard pressure – 76 cm Hg – 760 mm Hg – 760 torr – 1 atmosphere – 101.3 kPa Hg density = 13.6 g/mL 9 Gas Laws - show the relationship between pressure, • Boyle’s Law • Charle’s Law • Combined Gas Law • Avogadro’s Law • Ideal Gas Law • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 10 Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship • states that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume at constant temperature or the product of a gas’s pressure and volume is always constant 11 Boyle’s Law 12 Boyle’s Law • V 1/P or • V= k (1/P) or PV = k • P 1 V 1 = k 1 for one sample of a gas. • P
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This note was uploaded on 07/24/2011 for the course CHEM 16 taught by Professor Siao during the Spring '07 term at University of the Philippines Diliman.

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gas+laws - Principles of General Chemistry, 2nd ed. By M....

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