molecular+structures+and+bonding+theories

molecular+structures+and+bonding+theories - Principles of...

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Chemical Bonding Principles of General Chemistry, 2 nd ed. By M. Silberberg Chemistry, 8th ed. by W. Whitten, R. Davis, R., M. L. Peck, and G. Stanley. Exercises 1. Identify the type of bond/s that exist/s in the following compounds: a. SO 2 b. FeCl 2 c. Ca(OH) 2 2. Use orbital diagrams to depict the formation of MgO. 3. Draw all possible structures for NCO - and determine the most stable structure. 4. Draw all resonance structures for NO 3 - . Answers 1. a. SO 2 barb2right Covalent Bond b. FeCl 2 barb2right Ionic Bond c. Ca(OH) 2 barb2right Ionic and Covalent Bonds 2. Mg: [Ne] 3s 2 O: [He] 2s 2 2p 4 for MgO to form, 2e - s are transferred from Mg to O resulting to: barb2right Mg 2+ : [Ne] barb2right O 2- : [He] 2s 2 2p 6 Answers 3. NCO - 4. NO 3 - N C O A N C O B N C O C -2 0 +1 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 N O O O N O O O N O O O Molecular Structure & Covalent Bonding Theories Principles of General Chemistry, 2 nd ed. By M. Silberberg Chemistry, 8th ed. by W. Whitten, R. Davis, R., M. L. Peck, and G. Stanley. Lecture topics… 1. Stereochemistry 2. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory 3. Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Geometry 4. Valence Bond (VB) Theory 5. Molecular Shapes and Bonding
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Stereochemistry the study of the three dimensional shapes of molecules. can be used to explain chemical properties associated with intermolecular attractions Basic approach for molecular structure prediction: 1. Draw the correct Lewis dot structure. Identify the central atom. Designate the bonding pairs and lone pairs of electrons on central atom. 2. Count the regions of high electron density on the central atom. Include both bonding and lone pairs in the counting. 3. Determine the electronic geometry around the central atom. VSEPR is a guide to the geometry. 4. Determine the molecular geometry around the central atom. Ignore the lone pairs of electrons. 5. Adjust molecular geometry for effect of any lone pairs. Basic approach for molecular structure prediction: 6. Determine the hybrid orbitals on central atom. 7. Repeat procedure if there is more than one central atom in molecule. 8. Determine molecular polarity from entire molecular geometry using electronegativity differences. Basic approach for molecular structure prediction: In summary of the approach… Two Simple Theories of Covalent Bonding Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) Principal originator: R. J. Gillespie in the 1950’s Valence Bond Theory (VBT) Principal originator: L. Pauling in the 1930’s-40’s
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VSEPR Theory Regions of high electron density around
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