reaction+stoichiometry+part+01

reaction+stoichiometry+part+01 - Principles of General...

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Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry Principles of General Chemistry, 2 nd ed. By M. Silberberg Chemistry, 8th ed. by W. Whitten, R. Davis, R., M. L. Peck, and G. Stanley. Lecture Goals 1. Chemical Equations 2. Combination Reactions 3. Decomposition Reactions 4. Displacement Reactions 5. Metathesis Reactions 6. Gas-Formation Reactions 7. REDOX Reactions 8. Calculations Based on Chemical Equations 9. The Limiting Reactant Concept 10. Percent Yields from Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations CH 4 + 2O 2 b CO 2 + 2H 2 O reactants yield products • the information an equation provides: Fe O + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 3 2  → Chemical Equations 1 formula unit 3 molecules 2 atoms 3 molecules 1 mole 3 moles 2 moles 3 moles 159.7 g 84.0 g 111.7 g 132g Law of Conservation of Matter – There is no detectable change in quantity of matter in an ordinary chemical reaction. – Balanced chemical equations must always include the same number of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation. • Propane,C 3 H 8 , burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water. O H 4 CO 3 O 5 H C 2 2 2 8 3 + → + Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations Translate the statement Balance the atoms Specify states of matter Adjust the coefficients Check the atom balance Within the cylinders of a car’s engine, the hydrocarbon octane (C 8 H 18 ), one of many components of gasoline, mixes with oxygen from the air and burns to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. Write a balanced equation for this reaction. C 8 H 18 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 8 H 18 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 8 9 2 C 8 H 18 + 25 O 2 16 CO 2 + 18 H 2 O 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 ( g ) 16 CO 2 ( g ) + 18 H 2 O ( g ) 25 2
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Combination Reactions addition or synthesis reactions occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound. three basic types: 1. Two elements react to form a new compound 2. An element and a compound react to form one new compound 3. Two compounds react to form one compound 1. Element + Element Compound ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 s g 2 s NaCl 2 Cl Na 2 + Combination Reactions ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 s g 2 s MgO 2 O Mg 2 + ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 s 3 2 s AlBr 2 Br 3 Al 2 + l 1. Element + Element Compound ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 s 10 4 g 2 s 4 O P O 5 P + Combination Reactions ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 l 3 g 2 s 4 PCl 4 Cl 6
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reaction+stoichiometry+part+01 - Principles of General...

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