thermochemistry+part+01 - Principles of General Chemistry...

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Chemical Thermodynamics: Heat and Thermochemistry Principles of General Chemistry, 2 nd ed. By M. Silberberg Chemistry, 8th ed. by W. Whitten, R. Davis, R., M. L. Peck, and G. Stanley. Objectives 1. Define thermodynamics & thermochemistry 2. Define energy, heat and other thermodynamic terms 3. Define enthalpy 4. Discuss thermochemical equations 5. Define spontaneity, entropy and Gibb’s free energy Thermodynamics & Thermochemistry Thermochemistry is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with the heat involved with chemical and physical changes Thermodynamics is the study of heat and its transformations to and from other forms of energy Why study thermochemistry? It allows us to predict whether a certain process would occur spontaneously or not However, its limitations is that, it can not predict how fast a reaction would occur (kinetics) Energy and heat ENERGY – the capacity to do work KINETIC ENERGY – due to motion (will be explained in the gases part) POTENTIAL ENERGY – due to position or composition (main discussion in thermochemistry) Units: joule (J) = 1 N · m = 1 kg · m 2 /s 2 and calorie (cal) = 4.184 joules HEAT – energy transferred between a system and its surroundings as a result of temperature difference Fundamental Laws 1st Law of Thermodynamics The combined amount of matter and energy in the universe is constant Law of Conservation of Energy Energy is neither created nor destroyed
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Thermodynamic terms UNIVERSE = Systems + surroundings SYSTEMS = substances involved in the physical or chemical changes under investigation SURROUNDINGS = environment around the system Thermodynamic Systems – defined by the set of conditions that specify all of its properties number of moles and identity of each substance physical states of each substance temperature of the system (standard state = 298 K) pressure of the system (standard state ( 1.00 atm) types: 1. Open – energy and matter can move in and out of the system freely 2. Closed - matter is confined only in the system
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thermochemistry+part+01 - Principles of General Chemistry...

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