Unit 1, chap 4 - TypesofChemical ReactionsandSolution...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Types of Chemical Chapter 4
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Aqueous Solutions: An n Solutions are mixtures of two or more substances dissolved in  one another n The solute is the substance present in the smaller amount n The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount n In aqueous solutions, the solvent is water n The concentration of a solution defines the amount of solute  dissolved in the solvent n The amount of sugar in sweet tea can be defined by its concentration
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Aqueous Solutions: An n An aqueous solution is composed of a solute  (either solid, liquid, or gas) that has been  dissolved in water (the solvent) n The process of dissolving substances in  water is energetic and requires an interaction  between the dipoles of water and the charges  on the solute particles
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Aqueous Solutions: An n The process of dissolving a solute in water is called hydration n An example would be the hydration of an ionic salt n The partial positive and partial negative charges on water molecules  interact with the positive and negative charges on the ionic crystal n The result is that the water causes the crystal to break up into  individual cations and anions
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Aqueous Solutions: n Electrolytes- substances that conduct electricity when dissolved  in water n Strong electrolytes conduct electrical current very well n Weak electrolytes conduct electrical current poorly n Nonelectrolytes do not conduct electrical current
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n The number of ions in the solution determine the strength of  electrolytes n Salts that dissolve in water provide ions that are capable of carrying  electrical current and are strong electrolytes n Salts that do not dissolve in water do not provide the necessary ions  needed to carry electrical current and are nonelectrolytes Aqueous Solutions:
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Aqueous Solutions: n A soluble substance is another way of describing a substance that  has dissolved in water n Many substances will dissolve by hydration of the entire molecule 
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Unit 1, chap 4 - TypesofChemical ReactionsandSolution...

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