Unit 2, chap 14 - Chapter 14 Covalent bonding is described...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Covalent bonding is described as electron pair sharing accomplished by the overlap of orbitals of two atoms The valence bond theory describes how this bonding occurs Atoms in a bond are able to rearrange the electrons in their valence shells to create lower energy hybrid orbitals These hybrid orbitals can overlap with orbitals on other atoms to share electrons and form bonds Beryllium will form two covalent bonds with chlorine atoms How does this occur if the valence electrons of Be are both in the 2s orbital? To make room, Be must move an electron into an empty p orbital, forming sp hybrid orbitals The sp hybrids allow Be to bond linearly to two atoms Boron will form three covalent bonds with hydrogen by forming sp 2 hybrids This gives a trigonal planar arrangement Carbon will form four covalent bonds with hydrogen by forming sp 3 hybrids This gives a tetrahedral arrangement This sp 3 orbital becomes the lone pair Nitrogen will form three covalent bonds with hydrogen by forming sp 3 hybrids This gives a tetrahedral arrangement Oxygen will form two covalent bonds with hydrogen by forming sp 3 hybrids This gives a tetrahedral arrangement These two sp 3 orbitals become the lone pairs Hybridization might also involve the d orbitals For a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement, a dsp 3 hybrid is necessary For an octahedral arrangement, a d 2 sp 3 hybrid is necessary Effective pairs = RHEDs (regions of high electron density) weve previously mentioned...
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This note was uploaded on 07/25/2011 for the course CH 301 taught by Professor Fakhreddine/lyon during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Unit 2, chap 14 - Chapter 14 Covalent bonding is described...

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