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cellular respiration

cellular respiration - Cellular Respiration Harvesting...

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Unformatted text preview: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Energy Flow and Chemical Recycling Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat energy Figure 9.2 Catabolic Pathways • Anaerobic energy harvesting pathways • Aerobic energy harvesting pathways Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction • Oxidation • Reduction Redox Reactions X e- + Y X + Y e- becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron) Redox Reactions CH 4 H H H H C O O O O O C H H Methane (reducing agent) Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Carbon dioxide Water + 2O 2 CO 2 + Energy + 2 H 2 O becomes oxidized becomes reduced Reactants Products Figure 9.3 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy becomes oxidized becomes reduced Redox Reactions: Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules • NAD + • Electron transport chain Redox Reactions: Stepwise Harvesting of Energy NAD + NAD + H O O O O – O O O – O O O P P CH 2 CH 2 HO OH H H HO OH HO H H N + C NH 2 H N H NH 2 N N Nicotinamide (oxidized form) NH 2 + 2[H] (from food) Dehydrogenase Reduction of NAD + Oxidation of NADH 2 e – + 2 H + 2 e – + H + NADH O H H N C + Nicotinamide (reduced form) N Figure 9.4 H + H + Fig. 9-5 F r e e e n e r g y , G F r e e e n e r g y , G (a) Uncontrolled reaction H 2 O H 2 + 1 / 2 O 2 Explosive release of heat and light energy (b) Cellular respiration Controlled release of energy for synthesis of ATP 2 H + + 2 e – 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 (from food via NADH) ATP ATP ATP 1 / 2 O 2 2 H + 2 e – E l e c t r o n t r a n s p o r t c h a i n H 2 O Electron Transport Chain Redox Reactions: Stepwise Harvesting of Energy Overview of Aerobic Energy Harvesting Electrons carried via NADH Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Electrons carried...
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