jaime notes - MODULE 1: THE CELL INTRODUCTION I....

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Unformatted text preview: MODULE 1: THE CELL INTRODUCTION I. ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY II. THE CELL COMPOSITION THE CELL MEMBRANE I. FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL MEMBRANE II. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE CELL MEMBRANE III. BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE CELL MEMBRANE THE CYTOPLASM I. COMPOSITION OF THE CYTOPLASM II. CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES III. FIBRILLAR ELEMENTS IV. INCLUSIONS NUCLEUS I. FUNCTIONS OF THE NUCLEUS II. COMPONENTS OF THE NUCLEUS III. NUCLEAR ENVELOPE OF THE NUCLEUS IV. THE CHROMOSOMES V. PROTEINS MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS MEMBRANE I. ENDOCYTOSIS II. EXOCYTOSIS 1 MODULE 1: THE CELL INTRODUCTION I. ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY Cell-basic morphological and functional unit of all living things Tissue-combination of cells with the same general function Organs-combination of tissues that form a more complex functional unit Systems-organs that have interrelated functions II. THE CELL COMPOSITION Cell Membrane-delimits the cell from its surroundings Cytoplasm-enclosed in the cell membrane Nucleus-separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope THE CELL MEMBRANE I. FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL MEMBRANE Delimits cell from surroundings Protective cover Determines substances that move in and out of the cell Attachment for cytoskeleton Forms specialized junctions with membrane of other cells Receives and gives out stimuli Provides binding sites and receptors for enzymes and other substances Allows for cell recognition II. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE CELL MEMBRANE-8-10 nm thick (not seen in Light Microscope)-Electron Lucent Line (formed by tails) between 2 Electron-Dense Lines (formed by heads) III. BASIC STRUCTURES OF THE CELL MEMBRANE A. PhospholipidBilayer-contains a head and two tails which forms a bilayer-head is the polar and tail is non-polar 1. Head-Globular Polar and Hydrophilic -Glycerol conjugated to a nitrogenous compound by a Phosphate Bridge-Occupies the outer surface of bilayer-forms the 2-electron dense lines 2. Tails-Non Polar / Hydrophobic -Straight, Saturated Fatty Acids-May contain unsaturated fatty acids (with slight Kinks)-occupies the inner surface -forms the electron-lucent tails 2 B. Proteins-half of the mass of cell membranes -has two types: Integral Proteins + Peripheral Proteins 1. Integral Proteins-forms part of the membrane-also called Transmembrane proteins-span the whole thickness of the membrane -hydrophobic because it interacts with tails 2. Peripheral Proteins-inserted on / loosely bound to outer or inner surfaces -hydrophilic / polar C. Cholesterol-forms part of all cell membranes -functions for rigidity -can be synthesized by body from other substances D. Glycocalyx-present in some cells -thin layer of amorphous electron dense material on surface of cell (outer)-functions for Cell Recognition, Cell to Cell Adhesion, Immunological Response-consists of Glycoproteins and Glycolipids Glycolipids = carbohydrates + lipids Glycoprotein = carbohydrates + proteins THE CYTOPLASM I. COMPOSITION OF THE CYTOPLASM (MATRIX + FORMED ELEMENTS) I....
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This note was uploaded on 07/25/2011 for the course MED 101 taught by Professor Anatomyprofs during the Summer '11 term at De La Salle University.

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jaime notes - MODULE 1: THE CELL INTRODUCTION I....

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