Phil 103 CH 9Consequentialism●John WesleyoEnglish religious thinker and founder of the Meth- odist ChurchoOur business here on earth is to do good—as much and as often as we can. Our efforts must extend beyond ourselves, to all whom we might help. Benevolence should be our guiding aim, and a life of altruism and good works should be the record we leave behind.●consequentialist outlook: do as much good as you can.oG. E. Moore (1873–1958)▪what is right is whatever produces the most good▪Acts are morally right just because they maximize the amount of goodness in theworld.●Optimificosuch as to yield the greatest balance of benefits over drawbacks●Consequentialists are those who encourage us not to cry over spilt milk. They direct our attention to the future, not the past. They ask us to look at the consequences of our actions or policies—hence the name of their theory.othe ends justify the means, so long as the ends are good enoughoDid my action achieve better results than any other I could have done? If so, then my action was morally required. If not, then it wasn’t.●StructureoConsequentialism says that an action is morally required just because it pro- duces the best overall results (i.e., is optimific).oFive steps ▪1. First, identify what is intrinsically good—valuable in and of itself, and worth having for its own sake. Familiar candidates include happiness, autonomy, knowledge, and virtue. ▪2. Next, identify what is intrinsically bad (i.e., bad all by itself). Ex- amples might include physical pain, mental anguish, sadistic im- pulses, and the betrayal of innocents. ▪3. Then determine all of your options. Which actions are open to you at the moment? ▪4. For each option, determine the value of its results. How much of what is intrinsically good will each action bring about? How much of what is intrinsically bad? ▪5. Finally, pick the action that yields the greatest net balance of good over bad. That is the optimific choice. That is your moral duty. Doing anything else is immoral.oethical egoism, the view we considered in the last chapter, is a form of consequentialism.▪It identifies just one thing—one’s own self-interest—as intrinsically good, and tells us that morally right actions are those that maximize this value.
oThus consequentialism isn’t just a single theory, but is rather a family of theories, united by their agreement that results are what matter in ethics.oact utilitarianism▪well-being is the only thing that is intrinsically valuable▪an action is morally required just because it does more to improve overall well-being than any other action you could have done in the circumstances.▪principle of utility▪, according to act utili- tarianism, acts are right just because they maximize the overall amount of well-being in the worldoMaximizing goodness▪John Stuart Mill●create the greatest good for the greatest number●Mill was a hedonist, who believed that only happiness was intrinsi- cally valuable and only misery was intrinsically bad.