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lec4 - Chapter 4 Research Ethics Note as you read this...

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Chapter 4 Research Ethics Note: as you read this lecture, it’s a good idea to also look at the concept map for the chapter. Remember that you can click of different parts of the concept map to move upward or downward. Here is the link: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/dr_johnson/clickmaps/ch4/fr_ch4.htm What Are Research Ethics? Ethics is the division in the field of philosophy that deals with values and morals. It is a topic that people may disagree on because it is based on people's personal value systems. What one person or group considers to be good or right might be considered bad or wrong by another person or group. In this chapter, we define ethics as the principles and guidelines that help us to uphold the things we value. There are three major approaches to ethics that are discussed in the chapter. 1. Deontological Approach - This approach states that we should identify and use a Universal code when making ethical decisions. An action is either ethical or not ethical, without exception. 2. Ethical skepticism - This viewpoint states that concrete and inviolate ethical or moral standards cannot be formulated. In this view, ethical standards are not universal but are relative to one's particular culture, time, and even individual. 3. Utilitarianism - This is a very practical viewpoint, stating that decisions about the ethics should be based on an examination and comparison of the costs and benefits that may arise from an action. Note that the utilitarian approach is used by most people in academia (such as Institutional Review Boards) when making decisions about research studies. Ethical Concerns The are three primary areas of ethical concern for researchers: 1. The relationship between society and science. Should researchers study what is considered important in society at a given time? Should the federal government and other funding agencies use grants to affect the areas researched in a society?
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