lec12 - Chapter 12 Qualitative Research (Reminder: Dont...

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Chapter 12 Qualitative Research (Reminder: Don’t forget to utilize the concept maps and study questions as you study this and the other chapters.) Qualitative research relies primarily on the collection of qualitative data (i.e., nonnumeric data such as words and pictures). I suggest that, to put things in perspective, you start by reviewing the table showing the common differences between qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research. That is, take a quick look at Table 2.1 on page 31 (or go to lecture two because it is also included in the lecture). Next, to further understand what qualitative research is all about, please carefully examine Patton’s excellent summary of the twelve major characteristics of qualitative research , which is shown in Table 12.1 (page 362) and below:
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Now you should understand what qualitative research is. In the rest of the chapter, we discuss the four major types of qualitative research: Phenomenology. Ethnography. Grounded theory. Case study.
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To get things started, note the key characteristics (i.e., purpose, origin, data-collection methods, data analysis, and report focus) of these four approaches as shown in Table 12.2 on page 363 and below: Phenomenology The first major approach to qualitative research is phenomenology (i.e., the descriptive study of how individuals experience a phenomenon). Here is the foundational question in phenomenology: What is the meaning, structure, and essence of the lived experience of this phenomenon by an individual or by many individuals? The researcher tries to gain access to individuals' life-worlds , which is their world of experience; it is where consciousness exists.
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Conducting in-depth interviews is a common method for gaining access to individuals' life- worlds. The researcher, next, searches for the invariant structures of individuals' experiences (also called the essences of their experience). Phenomenological researchers often search for commonalities across individuals (rather than only focusing on what is unique to a single individual). For example, what are the essences of peoples' experience of the death of a loved one? Here is another example: What are the essences of peoples' experiences of an uncaring nurse? After analyzing your phenomenological research data, you should write a report that provides rich description and a "vicarious experience" of being there for the reader of the report. Shown next are two good examples. See if you get the feeling the patients had when they described caring and noncaring nurses. Here is a description of a caring nurse (from Exhibit 12.2) based on a
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lec12 - Chapter 12 Qualitative Research (Reminder: Dont...

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