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CIGARETTE BRAND PREFERENCES AMONG ADOLESCENTS - CIGARETTE...

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CIGARETTE BRAND PREFERENCES AMONG ADOLESCENTS Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 45 Lloyd D. Johnston Patrick M. O’Malley Jerald G. Bachman John E. Schulenberg Institute for Social Research The University of Michigan 1999
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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MAIN FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Levels of Cigarette Smoking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Brand Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Level of Smoking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Purchasing Their Own Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Age of Smoking Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DIFFERENCES AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC SUBGROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Gender Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Racial/Ethnic Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Population Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 College Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Parental Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 APPENDIX A: TEXT OF QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 APPENDIX B: CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND SELECTED SIGNIFICANCE TESTS FOR THREE CIGARETTE BRANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
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iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Grade 8: Brands Usually Smoked by Current Smokers, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 2. Grade 10: Brands Usually Smoked by Current Smokers, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 3. Grade 12: Usually Smoked by Current Smokers, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Long-Term Trends in Prevalence of Cigarettes for Eighth, Tenth, and Twelfth Graders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 2. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 3. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Smoking Frequency for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 4. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Self-Purchase for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table 5. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Grade of Smoking First Cigarette for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 6. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Gender for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . 17 Table 7. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Race/Ethnicity for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 8. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Region for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . 19 Table 9. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Population Density for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 10. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Four-Year College Plans for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 11. 1998 Cigarette Brand Preference by Parental Education for Past Thirty-Day Smokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table B-1. Marlboro Use at Eighth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table B-2. Marlboro Use at Tenth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table B-3. Marlboro Use at Twelfth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table B-4. Newport Use at Eighth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table B-5. Newport Use at Tenth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table B-6. Newport Use at Twelfth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table B-7. Camel Use at Eighth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table B-8. Camel Use at Tenth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table B-9. Camel Use at Twelfth Grade, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
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1 BACKGROUND Monitoring the Future is an ongoing study of American young people, based in part on annual surveys of nationally representative samples of eighth, tenth, and twelfth-grade students attending public or private secondary schools in the coterminous 48 states. Since its inception in 1975, it has been funded through a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to a team of social scientists at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. The epidemiological results of these surveys are published in an annual series of monographs (see Johnston, O’Malley, & Bachman, 1998). The most recent survey, conducted in the spring of 1998, involved nearly 50,000 respondents in 422 schools.
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