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Summary of Theories 2

Summary of Theories 2 - Criminological Theory Summaries...

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Criminological Theory Summaries Theory Main Points Theorists/Researchers Classical Crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs—when people pursue self-interest in the absence of effective punishments. Crime is a free- willed choice. See also deterrence, rational choice. Beccaria Positivist Crime is caused or determined. Lombroso placed more emphasis on biological deficiencies, whereas later scholars would emphasize psychological and sociological factors. Use science to determine the factors associated with crime. Lombroso Guerry Quetelet Individual Trait Criminals differ from noncriminals on a number of biological and psychological traits. These traits cause crime in interaction with the social environment. Glueck & Glueck Mednick Caspi Moffitt Social Disorganization Disorganized communities cause crime because informal social controls break down and criminal cultures emerge. They lack collective efficacy to fight crime and disorder. Shaw & McKay Sampson Bursik & Grasmick Differential Association Social Learning Subcultural Crime is learned through associations with criminal definitions. These definitions might be generally approving of criminal conduct or be neutralizations that justify crime only under certain circumstances. Interacting with antisocial peers is a major cause of crime. Criminal behavior will be repeated and become chronic if reinforced. When criminal subcultures exist, then many individuals can learn to commit crime in one location and crime rates—including violence— may become very high.
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