Chemical Basis of Behavior

Chemical Basis of Behavior - Neurotransmitters - rapid...

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Neurotransmitters - rapid action on receptors --> FAST, few different types Qualities of Neurotransmitter: Exist in presynapse Presynaptic enzymes can synthesize substance Released in sufficient quantities with impulse Postsynaptic receptors recognize substance Produces changes in postsynaptic voltage Blocking substance prevents signal transduction Neuromodulators - Medium speed and duration of effect => Modulate action of neurotransmitters Ex) Noncompetitive ligands Affect release of the transmitter or receptor response Hormones also modulate => Slower, long lasting effects Receptors really are the ones responsible for response cell launches to that signal Many diff receptors Evolution has really acted on receptors, changed most, very diverse Neurotransmitters are very ancient Much easier to tweak receptor and still bind Receptors are not synthesized, produced from gene Ligand - any molecule that binds receptors => Neurotransmitter Agonist - enhances receptor when bound Antagonist - binds receptor and blocks normal response to ligand Inversed Agonist - opposite response of natural ligand (reverse) Classification of Neurotransmitters - by chemical structure Amines Acetycholine Catecholamines Amino Acids GABA, glutamate, glycine, histamine Peptides Gases AMINES Acetylcholine - cholinergic cells Produced by all motor neurons Widely used in autonomic NS Present in: All preganglionic cells of parasympathetic and sympathetic NS Postganglionic cells of postsympathetic Pathway:
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Chemical Basis of Behavior - Neurotransmitters - rapid...

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