Cascade-Stage-TheoryRev1 - Fundamental Fundamental Cascade...

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Fundamental Cascade Stage Theory in I t S ti Isotope Separation for ENU4930/6937: Elements of Nuclear Safeguards, Non for ENU4930/6937: Elements of Nuclear Safeguards, Non-Proliferation, and Security Proliferation, and Security Presented by Glenn E. Sjoden, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor and FP&L Endowed Term Professor FP&L Endowed Term Professor -- -- 2007 2010 2007 2010 FP&L Endowed Term Professor 2007.2010 Florida Institute of Nuclear Detection and Security Nuclear & Radiological Engineering University of Florida
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Overview Introduction i i f i il i l h b Discussion of Fissile Materials – French Pub Nuclear Fuel Cycle / Front End / Back End Reactor Centric C i Conversion Enrichment R i Reprocessing Summary
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Enrichment is key to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle From Reilly, et al, Passive NDA of Nuclear Materials, NRC Press, March 1991
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The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Uranium Enrichment Most nuclear reactors need higher concentrations of U235 than found in natural uranium U235 is "fissionable," meaning that it starts a nuclear reaction and keeps it going. Normally, the amount of the U235 isotope is enriched from 0.7% of the uranium mass to about 5%, as illustrated in this diagram of the enrichment process. The three processes often used to enrich uranium are Gaseous diffusion (the only process currently in the United States for commercially enrichment) Gas centrifuges (as often reported in Iran) and Becker Nozzle (South Africa) AVLIS (Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation) From USNRC, April 2010
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Separation factors of various technologies Single Stage separation factor for stage i: Alpha i = (y i /(1-y i )) / (x i /(1-x i )) (y /(1 y /(1 x Gaseous Diffusion U 235 F 6 and U 238 F 6 Gas Molecules have kinetic energy 6 E=1/2 m v 2
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