Radiation Detection and Counting Statistics

Radiation Detection and Counting Statistics - Radiation...

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Unformatted text preview: Radiation Detection and Counting Statistics Please Read: Chapters 3 (all 3 parts), 8, and 26 in Doyle Types of Radiation Charged Particle Radiation Electrons particles Heavy Charged Particles particles Fission Products Particle Accelerators Uncharged Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation -rays x-rays Neutrons Fission, Fusion reactions Photoneutrons Can be easily stopped/shielded! More difficult to shield against! Penetration Distances for Different Forms of Radiation s s s ns Paper Plastic (few cm) Lead (few in) Concrete (few feet) Why is Radiation Detection Difficult? Cant see it Cant smell it Cant hear it Cant feel it Cant taste it We take advantage of the fact that radiation produces ionized pairs to try to create an electrical signal Ideal Properties for Detection of Radioactivity Radiation Ideal Detector Properties Very thin/no window or ability to put source inside detector Same as above, can be low or high density, gas, liquid, or solid High density, high atomic number materials neutrons Low atomic number materials, preferably hydrogenous How a Radiation Detector Works The radiation we are interested in detecting all interact with materials by ionizing atoms While it is difficult (sometime impossible) to directly detect radiation, it is relatively easy to detect (measure) the ionization of atoms in the detector material. Measure the amount of charge created in a detector electron-ion pairs, electron-hole pairs Use ionization products to cause a secondary reaction use free, energized electrons to produce light photons Scintillators We can measure or detect these interactions in many different ways to get a multitude of information General Detector Properties Characteristics of an ideal radiation detector High probability that radiation will interact with the detector material Large amount of charge created in the interaction process average energy required for creation of ionization pair (W) Charge must be separated an collected by electrodes Opposite charges attract, recombination must be avoided Initial Generated charge in detector (Q) is very small (e.g., 10-13 C) Signal in detector must be amplified Internal Amplification (multiplication in detector) External Amplification (electronics) Want to maximize V C Q V = Types of Radiation Detectors Gas Detectors Ionization Chambers Proportional Counters Geiger-Mueller Tubes (Geiger Counters) Scintillation Detectors Inorganic Scintillators Organic Scintillators Semiconductor Detectors Silicon High Purity Germanium Gas Detectors Most common form of radiation detector Relatively simple construction Suspended wire or electrode plates in a container Can be made in very large volumes (m 3 ) Mainly used to detect -particles and neutrons...
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Radiation Detection and Counting Statistics - Radiation...

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