Management Process - Management Process : Staffing Staffi...

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Unformatted text preview: Management Process : Staffing Staffi ng Le ade r-manager re cr uits, sele cts, places and indoctrinates pe rsonnel to accomplish the goals of t he or ganization Espec ially importa nt; health care or ganizat ion – “labor int ensive ”; require d acc omplishe d goal, many health c are ope n 24 hours a day, 365 days a yea r & client demands & nee ds are oft en are of ten var iable Reflect ; appropria te balance of hig hly s killed, competent pro f sio nals & es ancillary support wo rkers Se quential Steps in Staff ing 1. Determ ine the number & ty pes of perso nnel needed to fulfill the philosophy , meet fis cal planning responsibilities , & carry out the chosen pa tient ca re delivery sys tem s elect ed by the organizatio n 2. Recruit, interview select, and as sign personnel based on established job , descri ptio n perfo rmance standards 3. Us e o rganizationa l res ources for induction & orient tion a 4. A scertain that each employee is adequately s ocialized to organiza tion values and unit norms 5. Use creative and flexible s cheduling bas ed on patient care needs to increase productivity a nd retentio n • Accurately predicting staffing needs (cr ucia l management skill) – – • Enabl es to avoid staffing crises (should know source of nursing poo l, number of students enrolled in loca l nursi ng schools, usual length o f emplo yment of newly hired staff, peak staff resignatio n periods, & times w hen p tient census is highest) a Must consider patient care del ivery sy stem used, education & knowledge level of needed staff, budget constraints, historical staffing needs & availa bility, and diversity of patient populati on to be serv ed Selection of Personnel – Recruitment & Ret ention • Recruitment : process of actively seeking o ut / attracting applicants for existing po sitions & should be an ong oing process M ode s for R ec r uitmen t Em loye e r ec omme dations p n W d of mouth or Adve rtise me nt File r s Ne wslette r Bulle tin s Poste r s Care e r days Job fair Place me nt se rvice Op en h ouse Nu rs in g c onve ntions Attraction of qualified applicants is the first step Each institution should have someone who is responsible for recruitment Retention O ffer flexi ble shifts: option s of 4, 6, & 8 hours as well as job-sharing Cluster pati ent assignments, and keep suppli es & equipment in cen tral locati ons to avoid extensive walki ng Use lift teams, sp eci al bed s, & equip ment to curtail work- rel ated injuri es & physical strain Review & adapt ben efits packages to accommodate differen t need s Use older n urses for n onp hysical work, such as patient admission & discharges Move older nurses & other alli ed health p rofessi on als into areas & position , maximi zing their expertise while minimizing physical stress Use older staff as mentors and preceptors Screening of Staff Application forms & resum es Letters of reference Interview Testing Staff Development Indoctrinat ion : refers t o planned, g uided adj ustment o f an employee to the organization & the work environment; includes 3 phases: In duction ; takes place after employee has bee n selecte d b ut b efore performing job role ; includes all a ctivities that edu cate n ew employee about organization , emp loyment, pe rson al p olicies and procedu res Orientation ; activities are m ore sp ecific for th e p osition Socialization ; part of staff develop me nt & tea m -building p rocess Orientation Is important, the manager who does not take the time to assist a new employee is making a serious mistake Communicating regulations & exactly what is expected of the nurse diminishes uncertainty, relieves anxiety & prevents unnecessary misunderstandings St aff development Goes beyond orientation; continuing liberal education of the whole person to develop her potential fully May include: orientation, preceptorships, mentorships, skill checklist, internship, in-service education, courses, conferences, seminars, journals, programmed learning, independent study & refresher courses Preceptorship Used before the student graduate to orient them to the agency before graduation & are familiar with it. During preceptorship faculty members facilitate, monitor & evaluate student’s learning Liaisons between student & the agency Mentorship Mentors give their time, energy, & material support to teach, guide, assist, counsel and inspire younger nurses Nurturing relationship that cannot be forced; mentor is a confidant who personalizes role modeling& serves as sounding board for decisions Phases of Mentori ng Process: Invita tio na l ; “nurture” Q ue st ioning ; “ mente e-doubts -ment or ” guidance”- Transitional ; mentee pre pa red to mentor Method of Assignment Pros and Cons of Various Assignment Systems Staffing Schedules St affing po licies largely influence staf fing schedules T determine st aff ing policies, one must consider the following o questions; What is the best orga niza tion for staffing – centrali zed or decentralized to clinical areas or nursing units ? Who is res ponsible for origi nal scheduling or daily adjustment ? Where are nursi ng hours posted a nd an a ccurate copy kept ? For what period w ill schedules be prepared – 1, 2, 4 or 6 weeks ? How fa r in advance w ill personnel know their work schedule ? Wil l there be a n adjustment in staffi ng based on the identi ficatio n of patient needs ? Wil l there be shi ft rotation ? If there is s hift rota tion, how often – dail y weekly monthl y ? , How much should el apsed between rotated s hifts ? What day starts a calendar week – Sunday or Monday ? Wil l there be 2 days o ff each week or a n average of 2 days each week ? Staffing Schedules St affing po licies largely influence staf fing schedules T determine st aff ing policies, one must consider the following o questions; What is the best organization for staffing – centralized or decentralized to clinical areas or nursing units ? Who is responsible for original scheduling or daily adjustment ? Where are nursing hours posted and an accurate copy kept ? For what period will schedules be prepared – 1, 2, 4 or 6 weeks ? How far in advance will personnel know their work schedule ? Will there be an adjustment in staffing based on the identification of patient needs ? Will there be shift rotation ? If there is shift rotation, how often – daily weekly monthly ? , How much should elapsed between rotated shifts ? What day starts a calendar week – Sunday or Monday ? Will there be 2 days off each week or an average of 2 days each week ? Centralized & Decentralized Schedules ORGANIZING Delegation Delegation (essential element directing phase) o Is both an art & a science; includes cognitive, affective & intuitive dimensions o At its most basic, is empowering one person to act for another e Note: in response to emerging complexity of delegation in today’s health care arena, where increasing numbers of unlicensed & relatively untrained workers provide direct patient care; ANA & NCSBN defined differently o ANA : transfer of responsibility from the performance of a task from one person to another. o NCSBN : transferring to a competent individual the authority to perform a selected nursing task in a selected situation e Complex, require insight & judgment – environment & individual involved Reasons for delegating : managers must delegate ; o Routine task, free to handle problems more complex / require higher level of expertise o If someone else is better prepared or has greater expertise or knowledge how to solve problem o Provide learning or “stretching” opportunities for subordinates (contributes – personal & professional growth) Advantages ; Effective Delegating (strategies) o Plan ahead e Identify task (accomplished), assess situation, clear desired outcome o Identify necessary skills & levels e Managers should know official job description expected each worker classification in the organization o Select most capable personnel e Qualified, best able to complete in term capability & time to do e Should ask the individual & consider task as important (if he/she is capable), should also validate by direct supervision; o Communicate goal clearly What is to done (purpose), verify comprehension, desired end product should be specified, vital to give feedback subordinates & appropriate degree autonomy in decision making (how work accomplished) o Empower delegate o Set deadlines & monitor progress o Model the role & provide guidance Subordinate with difficulty – manager available “role model” help identify alternative solution & convey feelings confidence & encouragement Reassuming delegated task last resort (manager) = sense of failure & demotivates (subordinates) o Evaluate performance o After task completed include positive & negative aspects how person completed task Without feedback = unable to have mutually trusting & productive relationship Reward accomplishment “Mark of a great leader is when he / she can recognize the excellent performance of someone else and allow others to shine for their accomplishment” • Barriers ; common delegation errors Delegation is critical skill, must be learned ; nurse must be taught delegation skill both academe & clinical settings Maintain, decision to delegate should be consistent with steps of nursing process & based analysis patient’s needs & circumstances o Underdelegating Frequently stems from managers false assumption that delegation may be interpreted as lack of ability on his/her part to do the job correctly/completely Managers, desire to complete the whole job; lack trust subordinates Managers, believe needs the experience & can do it better & faster Excessive need to control / perfect o Overdelegating Poor managers of time (spend of most of it trying to organize) o Improper delegating Includes ; wrong time, person & reason Delegating task beyond capability person & without adequate information • Steps to successful Delegation Understanding the Principle of Delegation Ability to communicate clearly Capacity to see the value that delegation has in developing others Building trust and self-esteem Recognizing that different personalities & capabilities exist Acknowledging the following : e Right person e Right task e Right circumstances e Right direction & communication e Right supervision & evaluation e To delegate or Not : Is this really the question? Various nursing task can be appropriately delegated, after considering: Patient condition; especially stability Patient capacity for self-care Complexity of the task Repetitive nature of the task Technical nature of the task Skills & experience of the UAP Medical technology involved Infection control/safety precautions involved Predictability of outcome RN supervision available Extent of interaction with the patient Environment (ICU vs. Rehab unit) Potential for harm Centralization & Decentralization ◦ Centralized decision making : e few managers at the top of the hierarchy make the decisions ◦ Decentralized decision making : e Throughout the organization and allows problems to be solved by the lowest practical managerial level. e Means problems can be solved at the level at which they occur = improve quality care outcomes & increase organizational efficiency e As a rule, larger organizations benefit from decentralized decision making Team building / development : “Staff Development” ◦ Staff development is a cost–effective method of increasing productivity e Training : defined, organized method of ensuring that people have knowledge & skills for a specific purpose and that they have acquired the necessary knowledge (may require increased affective, motor or cognitive skills) to perform the duties of the job; immediate use e Education : more formal & broader in scope; design to develop individual in broader scope Team Building ...
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