Test 1 ('08)

Test 1 ('08) - Test 1 Question 1 - According to Darwin,...

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Test 1 Question 1 - According to Darwin, which of the following is NOT a requirement for the process of evolution by natural selection? a) Heritable variation b) Nonrandom reproduction c) Differences in survival or reproduction d) Neutral mutations e) Variation among individuals Question 2 The two phylogenies of animals below show the most parsimonious mapping of the evolution of bilateral symmetry (on the left) and segmentation (on the right). If the phylogeny is accurate, then: a) Bilateral symmetry evolved in seven different populations and segmentation in three. b) Bilateral symmetry is homoplasious and segmentation is convergent. c) Bilateral symmetry is a synapomorphy and segmentation evolved three times. d) Bilateral symmetry is non-monophyletic and segmentation is homoplasious. e) Bilateral symmetry evolved once and segmentation is a convergent trait. Question 4 The following figure shows a phenotypic space with two traits (X and Y) according to Fisher's geometric model. The optimal phenotype is at the origin (O). Consider the genotype that sits at the closed dot. The arrows represent mutations with different magnitudes and directions. Which of the following statements is a conclusion from this model? a) Most mutations are neutral. b) Mutations of large effect are more likely to be beneficial than mutations of small effect. c) Mutations of small effect are more likely to be beneficial than mutations of large effect. d) Most mutations are beneficial. e) Mutations of small effect are more likely to be deleterious than mutations of large effect.
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Question 3 Homologous characters can be used: a) As evidence of change over time b) As evidence of common ancestry c) To determine the fitness effects of mutations d) As evidence of population variation e) To determine allele frequencies Question 5 Genes specifying bitter taste receptors on our tongues have been shown to be polymorphic in many
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Test 1 ('08) - Test 1 Question 1 - According to Darwin,...

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