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Reviews 2 - CNS brain spinal cord PNS everything else The...

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+ CNS: brain + spinal cord - PNS: everything else + The Meninge found sandwich between the other two meninges: Arachnoid mater + Cerebellum little-brain ” = Important in Balance , Planning and Executing. Does not directly influence effector neurons. ( Associates w/ a lot of Motor shiz + give rise to resting tremors ) * 3 distinct parts: - Vestibulocerebellum: maintain Balance & control Eye movement. - Spinocerebellum: enhances muscle tone, coordinates skilled , voluntary movement; (Compare Intent vs. Response & correct any errors) - Cerebrocerebellum: provides input to cortical motor areas & stores procedural memories + The Diencephalon (Thalamus + Hypothalamus) * Hypothalamus – responsible for ( Involuntary Internal Response ): or Coordination Center w/ the Autonomic nervous system . like Body Temp . control; Production of Posterior Pituitary Hormones ; food intake control. - Constantly sampling the blood to check for Homeostatic functions , so NO BBB. * Thalamus - “Relay station” for Preliminary Processing of All Sensory Input Directs stimuli of interest to the proper areas of the brain Has Crude awareness but cant distinguish Location & Intensity Important role in positively reinforcing voluntary motor control + Cerebrum = largest portion of brain.2 Hemispheres connected by Corpus Callosum. > Integration of neural input & output occurs in the gray matter * Cerebral Cortex – outer layer of the cerebrum (create consciousness) * Basal ganglia – internally localized; involved in movement control * Limbic system – links higher cognitive function with emotional response Coordinate aspects of learnings and survival instincts . A ring of forebrain structures surround the brain stem Contains region designated as Reward and Punishment centers Play a key role in Emotion (does not provide conscious percep.) > Signals are transmitted by the white matter * Damage to Premotor Cortex area would result in the inability to perform accurate motor actions * Dual Reciprocal Innervations – help bring u back to Homeostatic func. Faster. ( DO NOT serve as backup system) * Constant sampling the blood for toxin is - Medulla. (where 90% of decussation occur) + Ascending tracts: transmit signals derived from afferent input up the spinal cord to the brain. (different tracts for different stimuli) – Descending tracts vice versa
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+ The Brain: Glial cells make up 90% of cells – the other 10% are Interneurons normally uses only glucose as a fuel for energy production. CANNOT resort to Anaerobic Metabolism – Glucose #1 choice If ran out of glucose, will use Ketone body - The most abundant type of neuron in the BODY is Interneuron - Glial cells – DO NOT conduct electrical impulse > ( Astrocytes) - provide structures > ( Microglia cells) - Phagocytes / induce formation of blood-brain barrier (have tight junction – Astrocytes that seal capillaries) > make CSF made from Choroid plexuses , have similar materials- blood, selectively transport materials by Ependymal cell.
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