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03_AP Bio Midterm Review Packet


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Unformatted text preview: AP REVIEW ECOLOGY bPOPULATION - a group of organisms of same species living in the same place at the same time. E |' E l l' : 1. Growth patterns: exponential (J) growth; logistic (3) growth carrying capacity - number of individuals an environment can support 2 Mortality patterns: 3 different survivorship curves—Survivallthousand vs. % of life span—Humans type I... .most individuals approach life span 3. Age structure: proportions of individuals of different ages (cohorts) in pop. 4 Density - number of individual per unit area or volume 5 Dispersion: pattern of distribution — random, clumped, regular Beguiaflnrmipopulatiom = limiting factors 1. Range of tolerance for factors such as light, temp. available water, salinity, nesting space, and shortages of nutrients 2. Density-dependent factors cause changes in birth or death rate as density changes; ex. infectious disease, competition 3. Density-independent factors cause changes that are unaffected by size or density of population; ex. environmental factors-drought, storms, volcanoes A Eifi I “.E ll'l E II 1. Prodigal (opportunistic; r-selected) organisms exploit an environment and then move on, but have remarkable powers of recuperation-dandelions 2. Prudent (equilibrium; K—selected) organisms are long-lived slow-to-mature are very slow to recover when their size is reduced-elephants IMPORTANT APPLICATION: effects of human population growth COMMUNITY - all the populations of organisms inhabiting a common environment and interacting with one another. These interactions are major forces of natural selection. Influence the number of individuals in a population and number and kinds of species in the community. II'II I' . B .l 1. Competition: intraspecific and interspecific a. effects overall fitness and reproductive success b. greatest among organisms that have similar requirements and life style 2. Principle of Competitive Exclusion: The species less efficient at utilizing or controlling a resource will eventually be eliminated. . . No two organisms can occupy exactly the same niche when resources are limiting. 3. Ecological Niche- "way and organism makes a living." Includes physical factors, biological factors, and aspects of behavior. ...
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