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07_AP Bio Midterm Review Packet


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Unformatted text preview: AP REVIEW BIOCHEMISTRY ”Water- most important inorganic molecule to life H20, bent (104.5°), polar(H positive, 0 negative), forms hydrogen bonds Cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, high specific heat, high heat of Vaporization, lower density upon freezing, excellent solvent Carbon — 6p, 6e, 6n; 4 valence electrons, 1322322p2, forms 4 covalent bonds with a variety of elements, bonds to other carbon atoms to form long chains and rings, forms single, double and triple bonds; forms the backbone of molecules of life Four important classes of organic molecules - contain C Carbohydrates CH20; storage, transport, energy, structure sugars and starches monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides glucose sucrose starch fructose maltose glycogen ribose/deoxyribo'se lactose cellUlose chitin . . I C, H, 0; very little 0 compared to H insoluble in polar solvents (water) triglycerides - 3 fatty acids + glycerol; high energy storage fats contain saturated fatty acids(max # of H’s/no double bonds), solids at room temp. oils contain unsaturated fatty acids (one or more double bonds), liquids at room temp phospholipids - 2 fatty acids, glycerol + phosphate group — PO44 amphipathic —hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions basis of biological membranes steroids -backbone of four linked carbon rings-cholesterol and sex hormones Ecoteins C, H, O, N, and sometimes S Polymers cOmposed of building block (monomer) units called amino acids A “\ 79 amino N — — C — OH carboxyl group / 3 group H R ...
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