{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

13_AP Bio Midterm Review Packet

Biology

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: AP EXAM REVIEW PHOTOSYNTHESIS' ”fiverall Reaction: I Light + 6H20 + 6C02 -—> C3H1zos + 602 Converts the energy of light into the energy of chemical bonds Begins with light absorbing pigments — chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b (absorb red and blue best/reflect green) as well as accessory pigments such as carotenoids and xanthophylls which broaden the spectrum of light used for photosynthesis Occurs in the chloroplasts Two stages — Light dependent and Light independent (Calvin Cycle) stages Light dependent: Light is absorbed and water is split to form ATP, NADH and 02. Light is absorbed. by special chl. a molecule in Photosystem ll' Electrons are excited and passed down an electron transport chain to Photosystem l* Electron transport chain carriers include cytochromes A proton gradient is established and ATP is generated chemiosmotically= photophosphorylation Light is absorbed by special ch. a molecules in Photosystem I These electrons are passed to NADP+ to form NADPH + H+ Water is split H20 —> 1/2 02 + 2 H+ + 2 e- to replace the electrons missing /’\ from Photosystem ll Occurs on thylakoids Z diagram= noncyclic photophosphorylation Cyclic photophosphorylation passes the electrons excited from Photosystem I back to to Photosystem l by way of the electron transport chain that allows for ATP production...thus the additional amount at ATP required for the Calvin Cycle can be generated * Electrons lost from P700 in Photosystem l are replaced by electrons from Page chlorophyll in Photosystem ll. * Electrons lost from P680 in Photosystem II are replaced by electrons from water Oxygen is a by—product of the photolysis (splitting with light energy) of water and will be used by plant in other reactions or released through the stomata. Light Independent (Calvin Cycle): Carbon (C02) is fixed into carbohydrates using ,/Athe energy of ATP and the reducing power of NADPH produced in the light reactions C02 enters via the stomata and diffuses from intercellular spaces into the mesophyll cells. 6002 join with 6 RUBP (C5)to form 6 unstable Ce molecules which immediately fall apart into 12 PGA (C3) molecules....thus this is a 03 pathway ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern