14_Biochemistry Test Notes

Biology

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Unformatted text preview: i-liulccular Biochcmmry l Carbohydrates l-qmuu- madam whim! [human .25: um Imam-d fl}. Rensselw;:r Monosaccharides Aldoses (e.g., glucose) have Ketoses (e. g., fructose) have an aldehyde group at one end. a keto group, usually at C2. ¢. l H—c—on cnzon lit-g Rico-5'0 D-d Haw”. For sugars with more than one chiral center, D or L refers to the asymmetric C. farthest from the aldehyde or keto group. Most naturally occurring ~ suyrs are D immers. , «4.: CHon é=o , » uo—é—u H—(ll‘jOH ‘ 1 H—lz—on 0H D-tructose L sugars ' m. ....(..\;,M,U-p 1 . Carbohydrates I - -~ Structure: (CH20),. or H ~(l2 - OH Monosaccimride: - simple sugars with gagiflé OH groups. Based on numbu' ofcarbons , , , . a V monosaccharideis a triose, tetrose, mouse or hexose. Disacclmridcx - 2 monosaccharids covalently linked. Oligosacohandcs — a few monosacc 'des covalently linked. 0 , O - 0 A l’olysaechariiies - polymers consisting of chains of monosaccharideor disaccharideunits. 1 D vs L Designation / ‘ . n.9,“). .. . "(mo D & L desngnations = ' are based on the, ' . : : configuration about _ CHZOH CHZOH the single asymmetric f l)—glycclal<lchydc l.,~gl_vcc1nldchyu‘c C in glyceraldehyde. ” H—{J‘OH Ho—E-cn CISHO EHO The lofflé’r i H—c—OH HO—C~—H representations are l l Fischer Prcy' actions. CHZOH GHZOH Wrflldchyfic l pglyccmldehydc Sugar nomenclature .. A “W ., w e a . womsw..naym namuwe mama/w wmam » sum « ,. . w v u . . ~ D & L sum (mirror imags of one another) have the same name, e.g., D—glucose & L-glucose. Other stereoisomers have unique names, e.g., glucose, mannose; galactose, etc. The number of stereoisomers is 2", where n is the numba of e. etnc cutters. The o-C aldoses have 4 asymmetric centers. Thustha'e are 16 stereoisomers (8 D-sugars and 8 L—sugars). ...
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