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17_AP Bio Midterm Review Packet


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Unformatted text preview: NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA! AND RNA) AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AP TEST REVIEW A’Know experiments that led to our understanding that DNA is the material of heredity and how it functions: bacterial transformation-Griffith, identifying the transforming principle-Avery, labeled bacteriophages-Hershey and Chase, amount of A: amount of T, amount of C: amount of G —Chargaff, photo 51- Franklin, double helix(1953)- Watson and Crick, Semiconservative replication labeling DNA with 5N- Meselson and Stahl, One gene- one enzyme hypothesis— Beadle and Tatum) DNA:_D.oublehe.lix_stmctuLe Composed of nucleotide: deoxyribose (pentose sugar), phosphate and nitrogen base. Sugar-phosphate backbone; nitrogen bases rungs form twisted ladder or 4 bases: purines (double-ring structure) adenine and guanine pyrimidines (single-ring structure) cytosine and thymine Hydrogen bonds responsible for complementary base pairing a purine pairs with a pyrimidine (A = T) and (G ; C) Terminal P group on 5' carbon and a terminal —OH group on 3' carbon ”Strands are antiparallelv (run in opposite 3', 5' directions) Distance of 0.34 nm between base pairs; 3.4 nm between turns of helix width of helix is 2.0 nm DNA Replication - semi-conservative and semi-discontinuous Unzipping of strands occurs as hydrogen bonds are broken allowing for complementary base pairing Leading strand is synthesized continuously (5' ---> 3') Lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously (3' ---> 5') in Okazaki fragments Replication occurs from 5' to 3' direction — main enzyme DNA polymerase III Primase enzyme used to synthesize short primers of RNA nucleotides Helicases - untwist the DNA double helix /break hydrogen bonds ' Single stranded binding proteins stabilize the template strands , Gyrases or topiomerases break the helix ahead of the replication fork to V relieve torque DNA polymerase I replaces the primers with DNA nucleotides Ligase joins Okazaki fragments Composed of nucleotides of ribose sugar, phosphate, nItrogen bases: A, G, C, and U (uracil) which replaces T, single stranded ...
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