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20_AP Bio Midterm Review Packet


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Unformatted text preview: Maintaining Genetic Isolation 1. Mechanical Isolation- structural differences prevent mating 2. Seasonal Isolation Different, incompatible mating times ” 3. Habitat lsolation- Live In two distinct habitats within same environment therefore they do not meet. 4. Behavioral Isolation - Leads to failure to interbreed due to behaviors such as courtship patterns, song, visual signals, etc. 5. Gamete Isolation - gametes don't survive in reproductive tract of other organism 6. Others including a. hybridsterilim- two species produce offspring, but they are sterile; b. byhuduelimmamn- produced, but weak malformed, die c. developmentaljncompatibilim- embryo aborts Evidence for Evolution Fossil evidence -evolution of horse Biogeography — aboundance of marsupials on Australia Comparative anatomy - homologous limbs in vertebrates indicate common vertebrate ancestor - analogous structures such as body shape In sharks and penguins due to similar environmental pressures to adapt to their environment A - vestiges— leg bones In some snakes Comparitive Embryology— gill slits and tails“ In all vertebrate embryos Molecular Biology-— comparative nucleotide and amino acid sequences Universal genetic code, use of ATP, glycolytic pathway, etc. Examples of Evolution - industrial melanism —peppered moths, antibiotic resistance in bacteria, Darwin’s finches Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: The allelic frequencies of a population will remain stable as long as the following conditions are met: 1. No mutation 2. No Natural selection. traits are selectively neutral 3. No gene flow— immigration or emigration 4. The population is large so there is no genetic drift 5. Mating Is random Since these conditions are rarely met In most natural populations, the frequency of alleles do change“ In populations, I e evolution occurs! Be able to do Hardy-Weinberg problems. A p = frequency of dom. Allele q= ~frequency of rec. allele P2 + cl - 1 Dz + 2N + C12 = 1 ...
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