Ecology Unit Chapters 55-59 Notes PART 8


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9 Ansh Guglani d. Predation affects Species Diversity by controlling prey population size; reduces competition and number of superior competitors; allows others to survive Ex) Starfish in intertidal zone Keystone species – species whose effects on the composition of communities are greater than one might expect based on their abundance; not always a predator Ex) Starfish, beavers 3. Symbiosis – an intimate (close) and protracted association between two or more organisms of different species; three major types of symbiosis: a. Parasitism – one benefits, one is harmed (host); Ectoparasites : feed on exterior surface of an organism, Ex) Lice and human Endoparasites : live inside the host; highly specialized, complex life cycles, multiple hosts;
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Unformatted text preview: Ex) tapeworm and human Parasatiods: insects that lay eggs on living, multiple hosts b. Commensalism – one benefits, the other is neither harmed nor benefitted; Ex) Spanish moss – epiphyte (hangs from trees); “hitchhikers” such as barnacles (on whales) c. Mutualism – both species benefit; Ex) Ants and acacia plants D. Community Stability 1. Ecological succession – the change in an ecosystem over time / the evolution of a community; three stages: Tolerance, Facilitation, and Inhibition a. Primary succession: occurs on bare, lifeless substrate – open water or barren rock; organisms gradually move into an area and change its nature Bare b Lichen (pioneer) b Moss b Herbs/Grasses b Shrubs b Tree 1 b Tree 2...
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