Ecology Unit Chapters 55-59 Notes PART 11


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12 Ansh Guglani 1000 INSECTS 1 TREE Function: Recycle NUTRIENTS …………………………. . STANDING CROP d. Heterotrophs: or Consumers; cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic precursors i. Herbivores – eat Plants ii. Carnivores – eat Meat iii. Detritivores – eat Decaying Matter/ Detritus Scavengers = Vultures Decomposers = Bacteria + Fungi 3. Efficiency of energy transfer (VERY LOW!) – 10% rule; limits the length of trophic chains to 4 or 5; limits the number of top carnivores because there is not enough energy passed down to support a stable, even higher trophic level.
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Unformatted text preview: a. Pyramid of Energy – always right side up b. Pyramid of Numbers – usually right side up; can be inverted when: c. Pyramid of Biomass (mass of dry organic matter) – usually right side up; can be inverted when 4. Trophic Level Interactions a. Trophic Cascade: process by which effects exerted at an upper level flow to influence two or more lower levels (top down effects) Ex) remove top carnivores [ HERBIVORES] [ PLANT] b. Bottom-Up Effect: when effect flows up through a trophic chain Ex) DDT (Biological Magnification); Non-Biodegradable materials...
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