Professor Bruce Fortado
University of North Florida
= Job analysis was the backbone of Scientific Management. It lost popularity in
the 50s and early 60s (just a part of pay).
Interest rose again in recent years with the need to
validate tests and other job requirements for EEO purposes (Dessler, 2009: 65).
is an ongoing
activity carried out by professionals
, and analyze
information about jobs, which is used to create job descriptions and job specifications.
(1) Everyone agrees on the fundamental thrust of gathering information, but what exactly is "a
* a collection of tasks which comprise an assignment (Dept. of Labor)
* the position and status of a job in the hierarchy (sociologists)
* a piece of work to be done (Industrial Engineer) - the division of labor
* the mental processes
* the physical actions
* the expectations within the informal organization
In practice, some job analysts probe for functions, roles and examples of good and bad behavior.
Others think in terms of quantitatively rating data, people and things
Job analysis is the cornerstone all of our HR practices rest upon.
If it is weak, so will
be all that follows.
When one does not capture all of the aspects of a job, then problems will
arise with subsequent recruiting and selection, training, performance appraisals, pay, etc.
Are we interested in looking at how job is done, how a job should be done, or both?
You need to focus on the gap between the two.
(2) What type of information should be gathered?
There are three basic areas:
tasks and activities
: the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed (aptitudes, strength, etc.)
purpose of the job, accountability, responsibility, extent of supervision,
consequences of errors
What goes in job descriptions and job specifications?
: Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other Factors (KSAOs): Competencies
: Job Content and Job Context: the what, why, how and where of the job.