IPv6 - IPv6 Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Professor School of...

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IPv6 Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Professor School of Computing, UNF
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2 Goals of IPv6 1. Support billions of hosts, even with inefficient address space utilization. 2. Reduce the size of routing tables. 3. Simplify the protocol to allow routers to process packets faster. 4. Provide better security. 5. Support for real-time data. 6. Permit the old and new protocols to co-exist for years.
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3 IPv6 vs. IPv4 1. IPv6 is compatible with TCP, UDP, ICMP, OSPF, and DNS. 2. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits (16-bytes) providing an effectively unlimited supply of Internet addresses. 3. IPv6 header is simplified compared to IPv4 header. It contains only 8 fields (vs. 13 in IPv4) thus allowing routers to process packets faster and so improving throughput. 4. IPv6 has better support for options. Options are represented so that it is simpler for routers to skip over options not intended for them. This speeds up packet processing. 5. IPv6 represents an advance in security: authentication and privacy are features of the new IP.
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4 IPv6 Formats The IPv6 packet has the general form: 40 bytes | 0 or more extension headers -------- | Extension headers defined include: 1. Hop-by-hop Options header : defines special options that require hop-by-hop (at each router) processing at every router. 2. Routing header : similar to IPv4 source routing. 3. Fragment header : contains fragmentation and reassembly information. 4. Authentication header : provides packet integrity and authentication. 5. Encapsulating Security Payload header : provides privacy (encryption). 6. Destination Options header : contains optional information to be examined by the ultimate destination of the IP datagram. IPv6 header Extension Header ……… Extension header Transport level PDU (e.g. TCP segment)
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5 IPv6 Formats … Note that the IPv6 header and each extension header include a NextHeader field (except the Encapsulating Security Payload header). This field identifies the type (of header) immediately following the header. If the next header is an extension header then this field contains the type ID of that header. Else this field contains the protocol ID of the higher layer (transport layer) protocol using IPv6 (e.g. TCP or UDP). This ID is the same as used by IPv4 to identify the receiving transport protocol.
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6 IPv6 Formats …
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7 IPv6 Header
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8 IPv6 Header Fields Version (4-bits): Specifies the IP version, i.e. 6. DS (6-bits) and ECN (2-bits): These are fields represent Differentiated Services and Explicit Congestion Notification, respectively. These 2 fields have replaced the old Type of Service field (also 8-bits) in IPv4. DS field is similar to the Type of Service field and marks how the router should treat packets and if the router treats packets differently based on the service. ECN field lets the source routers know of a router’s congestion before the router actually starts to drop
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IPv6 - IPv6 Dr. Sanjay P. Ahuja, Ph.D. Professor School of...

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