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Unformatted text preview: PROGRAMS WITH COMMON SENSE John McCarthy Computer Science Department Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/ 1959 1 Introduction Interesting work is being done in programming computers to solve problems which require a high degree of intelligence in humans. However, certain elementary verbal reasoning processes so simple that they can be carried out by any non-feeble minded human have yet to be simulated by machine programs. This paper will discuss programs to manipulate in a suitable formal lan- guage (most likely a part of the predicate calculus) common instrumental statements. The basic program will draw immediate conclusions from a list of premises. These conclusions will be either declarative or imperative sen- tences. When an imperative sentence is deduced the program takes a cor- responding action. These actions may include printing sentences, moving sentences on lists, and reinitiating the basic deduction process on these lists. Facilities will be provided for communication with humans in the system via manual intervention and display devices connected to the computer. The advice taker is a proposed program for solving problems by manip- ulating sentences in formal languages. The main difference between it and 1 other programs or proposed programs for manipulating formal languages (the Logic Theory Machine of Newell, Simon and Shaw and the Geometry Pro- gram of Gelernter) is that in the previous programs the formal system was the subject matter but the heuristics were all embodied in the program. In this program the procedures will be described as much as possible in the language itself and, in particular, the heuristics are all so described. The main advantages we expect the advice taker to have is that its behav- ior will be improvable merely by making statements to it, telling it about its symbolic environment and what is wanted from it. To make these statements will require little if any knowledge of the program or the previous knowledge of the advice taker . One will be able to assume that the advice taker will have available to it a fairly wide class of immediate logical consequences of anything it is told and its previous knowledge. This property is expected to have much in common with what makes us describe certain humans as hav- ing common sense . We shall therefore say that a program has common sense if it automatically deduces for itself a sufficiently wide class of immediate consequences of anything it is told and what it already knows. The design of this system will be a joint project with Marvin Minsky, but Minsky is not to be held responsible for the views expressed here. 1 Before describing the advice taker in any detail, I would like to describe more fully our motivation for proceeding in this direction. Our ultimate objective is to make programs that learn from their experience as effectively as humans do. It may not be realized how far we are presently from this objective.objective....
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2011 for the course COP 4810 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.
- Spring '11
- Computer Science