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Unformatted text preview: Each degree of freedom of a system has an energy ½ k B T. A degree of freedom is an independent mode of motion: translation, rotation, and vibration. Let the number of degrees of freedom be denoted f. Neglecting vibration, for ideal gases : N=nN A and R=N A k B 1/ndE/dT c V +R System f E int (T) c V c P m.i.g. 3N 3N ½ k B T 3/2 R 5/2 R (trans.) 3/2 nRT d.i.g. 5N 5N ½ k B T 5/2 R 7/2 R dumbbell(trans.+rot.) 5/2 nRT p.i.g. 6N 6N ½ k B T 6/2 R 4 R (trans.+rot.) 6/2 nRT Ideal Gas Toolkit Ideal gas law PV = nRT First Law of Thermo. dE int = dQ in- dW out Processes isothermal, adiabatic, etc. Work by gas W out = ∫p dV Internal energy of gas E int (T) = f ½ k B T EXAMPLES [in class]...
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