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Unformatted text preview: ¡ INTRODUCTION¡ To date, approximately 95% of broilers are vacci- nated by in ovo injection. In ovo injection technology not only provides a method for vaccination, but also a practical means by which to safely introduce external nutrients into developing embryos. Vaccine manufac- turers today are desiring to develop new products that can be injected in ovo to enhance vaccine efficacy and to improve broiler embryogenesis and posthatch perfor- mance. Nutrients and other metabolic compounds for in ovo injection, such as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, stimulants, and hormones, are under investi- gation (Gore and Qureshi, 1997; Johnston et al., 1997; Henry and Burke, 1999; Kocamis et al., 1999, 2000; Ohta et al., 1999; Jochemsen and Jeurissen, 2002; Tako et al., 2004; Uni et al., 2005; Foye et al., 2006; Kad- am et al., 2008; Zhai et al., 2008; Keralapurath et al., 2010a,b). During late embryogenesis, solutions injected into the amnionic fluid are subsequently swallowed, digest- ed, and absorbed by the embryo before pipping (Uni et al., 2005). In ovo feeding of supplemental nutrients may help late-term embryos to overcome the constraints of limited egg nutrients (Foye et al., 2006). Rapid growth coupled with a high energy requirement, especially dur- ing late embryogenesis, may make in ovo feeding of sup- plemental carbohydrates beneficial to broiler embryos. Chicken eggs are rich in protein and lipids but are poor in carbohydrates (Burley and Vadehra, 1989). There- fore, the carbohydrates naturally available in eggs may not be sufficient to meet the immediate metabolic de- mands of the embryo. Although glucose is mainly stored Effects of commercial in ovo injection of carbohydrates on broiler embryogenesis 1 , 2 W. Zhai,* D. E. Rowe,† and E. D. Peebles* 3 * Department of Poultry Science, and † Experimental Statistics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State 39762 ¡ABSTRACT¡¡ The effects of in ovo injection of differ- ent carbohydrate solutions on hatchability of fertilized eggs (HF), rate of hatch, BW, body moisture, yolk sac weight, and yolk sac moisture of Ross × 708 broiler chicks, hatched from eggs laid by a 34-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. Eggs containing live embryos were injected, using an automated multiple-egg injec- tor, in the amnion on d 18.5 of incubation with 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, or 1.0 mL of commercial diluent or a carbohydrate dissolved in diluent. The commercial diluent containing 0.25 g/mL of one of the following carbohydrates was injected into eggs: glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, or dextrin. The results showed that no carbohydrate type or solution volume affected rate of hatch. Absolute and proportional BW on day of hatch were positively related to injection volume ( P < 0.001). However, HF was negatively related to injection volume ( P < 0.001)....
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