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Vocab (3) - \s r In 114mm 7 subordinate points The...

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Unformatted text preview: \s r In? 114mm 7 subordinate points: The alignment of points within a speech outline that have somewhat lesser weight than main points; they provide support for or extend the more central ideas of main points. presentation aids: Objects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, and multimedia, used alone or in combination within the context of a speech; such aids help listeners to see relationships among concepts and elements, store and remember material, and critically examine key ideas. vocal delivery: The speaker’ 5 use of speech volume, rate, pitch, variety, pronunciation, and articulation to deliver a speech. nonverbal delivery: The speaker‘s use of facial expressions, gestures, general body movements, and overall physical appearance when presenting the speech. ' 2 Chapter 3 1‘ g feedback loop: The continual flow or feedback between speaker and listener. A situation in which successful speakers adjust their message based on their listeners' reactions, and vice versa (also known as circular response). listening: The conscious act of recognizing, understanding, and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others. selective perception: A psychological principle that posits that listeners pay attention selectively to certain messages and ignore others. active listening: A multi-step, focused, and purposeful process of gathering and evaluating information. listening distraction: Anything that competes for a listener’s attention; the source of the distraction may be internal or external. external listening distraction: Anything in the environment that distracts listeners from receiving the j—’47;.\» MET.- g Aw.“ an, a“. speaker's message. internal listening distraction: Thoughts and feelings, both positive and negative, that intrude on our attention as we attempt to listen to a speaker. defensive listening: A poor listening behavior in which the listener reacts defensively to a speaker's message. critical thinking: The ability to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons. valid generalization: A generalization that is supported by different types of evidence from different sources and that does not make claims beyond a reasonable point. overgeneraiization: An attempt to support a claim by asserting that a particuiar piece of evidence is true for everyone concerned. Chapter 4 ethics: The rules or standards of moral conduct, or how people should act toward one another. In terms of public speaking, ethics refers to the responsibilities speakers have toward their audience and themselves. It also encompasses the responsibilitieslisteners have toward speakers. . ethos: The Greek word for "character." According to the ancient Greek rhetorician Aristotle, audiences listen to and trust speakers if they exhibit competence (as demonstrated by the speaker's grasp of the subject matter) and good moral character. speaker credibility: The quality that reveals that a speaker has a good grasp of the subject, displays sound reasoning skills, is honest and non-manipulative, and is genuinely interested in the welfare of ...
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