Unformatted text preview: rearssessgapz“ o. a onomatopoeia: A ﬁgure of speech in which the speaker imitates natural sounds in word form in order to
add vividness to a speech (e.g., ”The rain dripped a steady plop, plop, plop”).
o malapropism: The inadvertent use of a word or a phrase in place of one that sounds like it.
, denotative meaning: The literal or dictionary deﬁnition of a word.
, connotative meaning: The individual associations that different people bring to bear on a word.
. active voice: Feature of a verb indicating that the subject performs the action. Effective speeches make
ample use of the active voice.
0 hedges: Unnecessary words and phrases that qualify or introduce doubt into statements that should be
stra ightfonua rd.
' tag questions: Unnecessary questions appended to statements or commands; the use of such weak
language undermines a speaker's authority.
repetition: A technique that speakers use to stress key points,- the speaker repeats words, phrases, or
sentences at various intervals throughout a speech to create a distinctive rhythm.
o anaphora: A rhetorical device in which the speaker repeats a word or a phrase at the beginning of
,_ successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.
0 alliteration: The repetition of the same sounds, usually initial consonants, in two or more neighboring
words or syllables.
- hackneyed: Language that is poorly crafted and lacking in freshness.
- parallelism: The arrangement of words, phrases, or sentences in similar grammatical and stylistic form.
Parallel structure can help the speaker emphasize important ideas in the speech.
0 antithesis: Setting off two ideas in balanced (parallel) opposition to each other to create a powerful
- triad: A rhetorical device that makes use of three parallel elements. 1 Chapter 17
effective delivery: The skillful application of natural conversational behavior to a speech in a way that is
relaxed, enthusiastic, and direct. I elocutionary movement: An approach to public speaking in which speechmaking is regarded as a type of
performance, much like acting.
speaking from manuscript: A style of delivery in which the speaker reads the speech verbatim-— that is,
from prepared written text (either on paper or on a TelePrompTer) containing the entire speech.
TelePrompTer: A device that contains a magnified script of a speech; it is commonly used when a
speaker's remarks are televised.
speaking from memory: A type of delivery in which the speaker puts the entire speech, word for word,
into writing and then commits it to memory.
oratory: In classical terms, the art of public speaking.
speaking impromptu: A type of delivery that is unpracticed, Spontaneous, or improvised. - speaking extemporaneously: A type of delivery that falls somewhere between impromptu and written or
memorized deliveries. Speakers delivering an extemporane0us speech prepare well and practice in
advance, giving full attention to all facets of the speech-- content, arrangement, and delivery. Instead of
memorizing or writing the speech word for word, they speak from a key word outline or phrase outline. ...
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- Spring '10