Unformatted text preview: Chapter 18 volume: The relative loudness of a speaker's voice while giving a speech. Iavalier microphone: A microphone that attaches to a lapel or a collar. handheld or fixed microphone: A microphone that is attached by a cord to an electrical power source.
pitch: The range of sounds from high to low (or vice versa). Pitch is determined by the number of
vibrations per unit of time; the more vibrations per unit (also called frequency), the higher the pitch, and vice versa.
.' intonation: The rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences. Intonation is what distinguishes a question from a statement.
- speaking rate: The pace at which a speech is delivered. The typical public speech occurs at a rate slightly below 120 words per minute.
vocal ﬁllers: Unnecessary and undesirable phrases or utterances that are used to cover pauses, such as “uh," "hmm," "you know," "I mean," and "it's like."
pauses: Strategic elements ofa speech used to enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation,
emphasizing a point, drawing attention to a key thought, orjust allowing listeners a moment to ' contemplate.
vocal variety: The variation of volume, pitch, rate, and pauses to create an effective delivery. pronunciation: The formation of word sounds.
o' articulation: The clarity or forcefulness with which sounds are made, regardless of whether they are pronounced correctly.
- dialect: Subcultural variations of the mainstream pronunciation and articulation of a language.
mumbling: Slurring words together at a very low level of volume and pitch so that they are barely audible.
lazy speech: A poor speech habit in which the speaker fails to properly articulate words. chapter 19
o aural channel : A nonverbal channel of communication made up of the vocalizations that form and accompany spoken words. These vocalizations, also called paralanguage, include the qualities of volume,
pitch, rate, variety, and articulation and pronunciation. ° paralanguage: The vocal effects that accompany speech.
visual channel: A nonverbal channel of communication that includes the speaker's physical actions and
appearance-- facial expressions, gestures, general body movement, physical appearance, dress, and
scanning: A technique for creating eye contact with large audiences; speakers move their gaze across
the audience from one listener to another and from one section to another, pausing as they do to gaze
briefly at individual listeners. O talking head: A speaker who remains static, standing stiffly behind a podium, and so resembles a
televised shot ofa speaker’s head and shoulders. Chapter 20
presentation aids: Objects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, and multimedia, used alone or
in combination within the context of a speech; such aids help listeners see relationships among concepts ...
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- Spring '10