Unformatted text preview: speaker credibility: The quality that reveals that a speaker has a good grasp of the subject, displays
sound reasoning skills, is honest and non-manipulative, and is genuinely interested in the welfare of
audience members; a modern version of ethos. , Chapter 25
argument: A stated position, with support, for or against an idea or issue; contains the core elements of
claim, evidence, and warrants.
claim: The declaration of a state of affairs, often stated as a thesis statement, in which a speaker
attempts to prove something. . evidence: Supporting material that provides grounds for belief.
warrant: A core component of an argument that serves tojustify the link made between the claim and the evidence.
‘ claim of fact: An argument that focuses on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen.
0 speculative claims: A type of claim of fact that addresses questions for which answers are not yet . available. 0 claim of value: A claim that addresses issues ofjudgment. . claim of policy: A claim that recommends that a specific course of action be taken, or approved, by an _ audience. d motivational warrant: A warrant that uses the needs, desires, emotions, and values of audience
members as the basis for accepting evidence in support of a claim. o authoritative warrant: A warrant that appeals to the credibility the audience assigns to the source of the
evidence,- also called an ethos-based appeal. ‘ substantive warrant: A warrant that relies on factual evidence to link a claim to evidence. ' warrant by cause: The provision of a cause-effect relationship as proof of a claim. a. warrant by sign: A statement based on an inference that such a close relationship exists between two
variables that the presence or absence of one may be taken as an indication of the presence or absence
of the other. (e.g., smoke is a sign of fire). ’ warrant by analogy: A statement, based on the comparison of two similar cases, that infers that what is
true in one case is true in the other. The assumption is that the characteristics of case A and case B are
so similar, if not the same, that what is true for B must also be true for A. O inoculation effect: A theory of persuasive Speaking in which a speaker anticipates and addresses
counter-arguments. The theory rests on the biological principle of inducing resistance through exposure
to small quantities of a harmful substance. 0 logical fallacy: A statement that is based on an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning. . begging the question: A fallacious argument presented in such a way that it is necessarily true, even
though no evidence has been presented.
bandwagoning: A fallacious argument that presents itself as true because "general opinion" supports it. o either-or fallacy: A fallacious argument that is stated in terms of two alternatives only, even though
there may be multiple ways of viewing the issue.
ad hominem argument: A form of fallacious argument that targets people instead of issues and attempts
to incite an audience's dislike for an opponent. ...
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- Spring '10