Unformatted text preview: aker relies on irrelevant information to ‘ red herring fallacy: A fallacy of reasoning in which the spe
support an argument.
0 appeal to tradition: A fallacy of reaso
on common practices in the past. ning in which a speaker argues for the truth of a claim based solely Chapter 26
, claim of policy: A cla audience.
a claim of value: A claim that addresses issues of judgment.
- claim of fact: Argument that focuses on whether something is or is not true or whether something will im that recommends that a speciﬁc course of action be taken, or approved, by an or will not happen. ca use-effect pattern of organization: A pattern of orga
then of effects; selected when the ca use-effect relationship is well established. target audience: Those individuals within the broader audience who are most likely to be influenced in the direction the speaker seeks.
hostile audience or those that strong persuasive speaker may encounter.
critical and conﬂicted audience: Audience members whose attitudes are critical or conflicted with respect to the speaker‘s topic.
narrative organizational patter story, with characters, plot, setting, - other organizational patterns.
sympathetic audience: An audience that alread types of potential audiences persuasive speakers may encounter.
hetic audience: An audience that knows or cares little about a specific nizing main points in order first of causes and Iy disagree: One of four types of potential types of audiences the n: A pattern of organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a
and vivid imagery. In practice, this pattern often is combined with y shares much agreement with the speaker; one of four uniformed, less educated, or apat
topic. topical pattern of arrangement
categories of the speech topic; of all organiza
structure speech points as desired. speciﬁc speech purpose: A reﬁned statement 0
purpose on the goal of the speech.
problem-solution pattern of arrangement: A
demonstrate the nature and significance of a (categorical pattern): A pattern of organizing main points as subtopics or
tional patterns, this one offers the most freedom to f purpose that zeroes in more closely than the general pattern of organizing speech points so that they
problem first, and then provide justification for a proposed solution.
problem—cause-solution pattern of arrangement: A pattern of organizing strate (1) the nature of the problem, (2) reasons for the problem, (3) unsatisfactory solutions, speech points so that they < demon
and (4) proposed solutions. 0 motivated sequence pattern of arrangement: A five—step process of persuasion developed by Alan Monroe.
a comparative advantage pattern of arrangement: A pattern of organizing speech points so that the speaker's viewpoint or proposal is shown to be superior to one or more alternative viewpoints or proposals. . _~» . - :2: r:E::rWC’Qt=:;---éf:==sgg ...
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