Ch. 13 Identifications
Brigham Young and the Mormons-
was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint
movement and a settler of the western United States. He was the President of The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death and was the
founder of Salt Lake City and the first governor of Utah Territory, United States.
Brigham Young University was named in his honor. Young led his followers, the
Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land.
Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality, and
was also commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. Young was a
polygamist and was involved in controversies regarding black people and the Priesthood,
the Utah War, and the Mountain Meadows massacre.
Know-Nothing or American party-
movement was a nativist
American political movement of the 1840s and 1850s. It was empowered by popular
fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants,
who were often regarded as hostile to Anglo-Saxon Protestant values and controlled by
the pope in Rome. Mainly active from 1854 to 1856, it strove to curb immigration and
naturalization, though its efforts met with little success. Membership was limited to
Protestant males of British lineage over the age of twenty-one. There were few prominent
leaders, and the largely middle-class and entirely Protestant membership fragmented over
the issue of slavery. The movement originated in New York in 1843 as the American
Republican Party. It spread to other states as the
Native American Party
and became a
national party in 1845. In 1855 it renamed itself the
. The origin of the
"Know Nothing" term was in the semi-secret organization of the party. When a member
was asked about its activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing."
George Henry Evans-
was a radical reformer, with experience in the Working Men's
movement of 1829 and the trade union movements of the 1830s. In 1844, Evans, trade
unionist John Windt, former Chartist Thomas Devyr and others founded the National
Reform Association, which lobbied Congress and sought political supporters with the
slogan "Vote Yourself a Farm." Between 1844 and 1862, Congress received petitions
signed by 55,000 Americans calling for free public lands for homesteaders. Free land was
depicted as a means of attracting the excessive eastern population westward, and, as a
result, bringing about higher wages and better working conditions for the laboring man in
the eastern industrial areas. For many years the public domain had been regarded as the
safety valve of the American political and economic order.
Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) -