Biology Figures

Biology Figures - Figures: Sunday, December 05, 2010 6:38...

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Figures: Sunday, December 05, 2010 6:38 PM 1.4 Atoms-smallest unit Molecules- made up of atoms Organelles- consist of molecules Cells- life’s fundamental unit of structure and function - multi-cellular organism- division of labor among specialized cells Tissues- consists of cells Organs- consist of cells, carries out a particular function in the body (heart) Organ Systems- consists of organs, each team of organs that cooperate in a specific function Organisms- individual living things Population- consists of all the individuals of a species within the bounds of a specified area Communities- entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem (forest: trees, plants, animals) -(forms of life = species) Ecosystem- living and nonliving things (biotic/abiotic) Biosphere- all the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life 1.13 (a) Negative feedback- converts substance A to substance D. A specific enzyme catalyzes each chemical reaction. Accumulation of the final product (D) inhibits the first enzyme in the sequence, thus slowing down production of more D. (b) Positive feedback- in a biochemical pathway regulated by positive feedback, a product stimulates an enzyme in the reaction sequence, increasing the rate of production of the product . 1.14 Classifying life- help with organizing the diversity of life. Biologists likes to classify species into groups that are then combined into even broader groups. “Linnaean” system is species that are very closely related. (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) 1.15 Three domains of life- (a) Domain Bacteria- most diverse, prokaryotes, multiple kingdoms (b) Domain Archaea- prokaryotes, multiple kingdoms (c) Domain Eukarya- protists - multiple kingdoms, unicellular eukaryotes, multicellular 3.2 (PP) Hydrogen bonds between water molecules- charged regions of polar water molecule are attracted to oppositely charged parts of neighboring molecules. Each molecule can hydrogen-bond to multiple partners. The slightly positive hydrogen of one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative oxygen of a nearby molecule. Two molecules are held together by a hydrogen bond. Ions spend more time by oxygen. Covalent bonds meaning that they are sharing. Water molecules are polar. 3.6
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Ice: crystalline structure and floating barrier- In ice, each molecule is hydrogen bonded to four neighbors in 3D crystal. Crystal is spacious, ice has fewer molecules than an equal volume of water. Meaning that ice is less dense than liquid water. Floating ice (like a lake in the winter) becomes a barrier that protects the liquid water below from the colder air. The ability of ice to float because of the expansion of water as it solidifies is an important factor in the fitness of the environment. Floating ice insulates the liquid water below, preventing it from freezing and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface. Water expands when freezes. Ice caused H bonds to be more stable and more space between molecules. 4.3
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This note was uploaded on 07/29/2011 for the course BIO 141 taught by Professor Voltzow during the Fall '10 term at Scranton.

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Biology Figures - Figures: Sunday, December 05, 2010 6:38...

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