Natural_selection_and_evo-1.doc tb

Natural_selection_and_evo-1.doc tb - J Voltzow Bio 141...

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J. Voltzow Bio. 141 Natural Selection and Evolution Historical perspective Plato and essentialism Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and the scala naturae Viewed species as fixed (unchanging) scala naturae - Life-forms could be arranged on a ladder, scale of increasing complexity Each form of life – perfect and permanent Judeo-Christian culture Species were individually designed by God and therefore perfect o Evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a particular purpose Natural Theology Linné and hierarchical classification (1707-1778) Swedish physician and botanist- sought to classify life’s diversity – “for the greater glory of God.” Two part / binomial system of naming speicies o Ex: Homo sapiens Adopted a nested classification of system – grouping similar species into increasingly general categories o Ex: similar species = grouped in the same genus, similar genera are grouped in the same family… Reflected the branching history of the tree of life, with organisms at the various levels = descent form common ancestors Cuvier and catastrophism Denied that species ever evolve Lamarck the evolutionist (1744-1829) Incorrect mechanism he proposed to explain how evolution occurs By comparing living species with fossil forms, Lamark had found what appeared to be several lines of descent chronological series of older to younger fossils leading to living species 1) Use and disuse - idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those that are not used deteriorate o Ex: giraffe stretching its neck to reach leaves on high branches
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2) Inheritance of acquired characteristics - organisms could pass these modification to its offspring o Ex: long muscular neck of the living giraffe had evolved over many generations as giraffes stretched their necks ever higher Darwin (1809-1882) and Wallace (1823-1913) Darwin o Born in England o Interest – nature Fishing, hunting, collecting insects o Father- physician & went to medical school
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Natural_selection_and_evo-1.doc tb - J Voltzow Bio 141...

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