Geology Test 1 study guide

Geology Test 1 study guide - GEOLOGY 1403 REVIEW QUESTIONS...

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GEOLOGY 1403 REVIEW QUESTIONS – TEST #1 Chapter 1 – Introduction 1. Define uniformitarianism and discuss this concept. Give specific examples – glaciation, streams, etc. Who was responsible for proposing the idea of uniformitarianism? Processes going on today, at the present, have basically operated in the past as they are today. Examples – water flowing down a river and across the land, glacier ice moving down a valley, waves crashing against a shore, volcanoes eru pting, etc. **The development of this principle was the beginning of modern geologic thought. 2. Know the rock cycle and discuss it in detail. Igneous rocks roll down the mountains formed by the volcanoes and eventually end up in the ocean. As they roll, bits and pieces of the igneous rocks are broken and form sediments . Layer after layer of sediments are pressed and cemented together forming sedimentary rocks . Some of the sedimentary rocks on the very bottom get hot because of the pressure and change to metamorphic rock . When the metamorphic rock is buried deeper, it gets hotter and melts. Once again, it becomes magma and may eventually be pushed up and out of a volcano. 3. Draw a sketch of the earth’s interior describing the characteristics of the different layers. What is the probable explanation of this ‘differentiation’, or layering, within the earth? Core - inner core in dense solid outer core is liquid
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Mantle - upper is semi-liquid; going down becomes more solid Crust - solid rock; average thickness 15-20 miles In geology our study is focused primarily on the crust. The crust makes up a very minute fraction of the entire earth. 15-20 miles is the average thickness of the crust. Compare that to the entire diameter of earth at 8,000 miles! Chapter 2 – Plate Tectonics 5. Discuss the concept of the theory of Plate Tectonics. The Theory of Plate Tectonics is the idea that the earth’s crust and uppermost mantle (the lithosphere) is divided into rigid plates that move. This would have caused the continents to have changed position throughout geologic time. This theory was developed by Alfred Wegner, a German meteorologist by trade. He proposed the existence of one super-continent that existed about 200 million years ago. This continent was named Pangaea, p, 32 in text I. Explanation of the theory A. Earth’s crust ‘broken’ into ‘pieces’, or plates. 7 major plates (North American, South American, Pacific, Antarctic, Eurasian, African, and Indian-Australian) and other minor plates make-up the earth. 6. List and locate on a map the seven major plates of the earth’s crust, as well as the smaller plates of Juan de Fuca, Carribbean, Nazca, and Phillipine.
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7. Describe the three types of plate boundaries. On a plate map, locate the following,indicating what type of plate boundary each represents: Mid- Atlantic Ridge, Red Sea,San Andreas Fault, west coast of South America, Japan, northern and southernboundaries of the Caribbean Plate.
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This note was uploaded on 07/19/2011 for the course GEOL 1403 taught by Professor Marshalayton during the Fall '10 term at Tyler College.

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Geology Test 1 study guide - GEOLOGY 1403 REVIEW QUESTIONS...

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