CH2_SelfStudy_NoNarr_ComputerHistory

CH2_SelfStudy_NoNarr_ComputerHistory - CHAPTER 2 SELF-STUDY...

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Click to edit subtitle style 11 CHAPTER 2 SELF-STUDY MODULE THE HISTORY OF ACCOUNTING TECHNOLOGY (Testable Material)
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22 ACCOUNTING n Accounting has always needed ways to record and process financial transactions n Believe it or not accounting records were kept in Roman numerals for centuries! n “Double Entry” accounting was considered revolutionary in its time n Luca Pacioli wrote the first textbook in 1494
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Think About Roman Numerals and Accounting 33 Translation MDCCXIV 1,714 +CDV 405 MMCIXX 2,119 Translation SUPPLIES MLXXXII 1,082 CASH LXXXII 82 ACCTS/REC M 1,000
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44 ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS n As the volume of business transactions increase manual processing systems become overwhelmed n This results in: n Errors as people rush to record all the entries n Backlogs of accounting entries n Decisions based on incomplete information when accounting falls behind
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55 AUTOMATION? n The first “automation” for processing accounting transactions was the abacus! n The earliest version was used in Mesopotamia in 2700 B.C. n We tend to think of China as the creator of the abacus, but many countries and empires developed their own version of the abacus: Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, the Aztecs
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77 AUTOMATION? n We then tried the slide rule! n This was developed in the 1600’s to do logarithms!
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88 AUTOMATION? n And we should not forget the lowly typewriter which gave us the ability to create very neat documents! n They started out manual in 1888 and you developed very strong fingers typing on the QWERTY keyboard n QWERTY is the six keys on the left of the top row! n And then they became electric making touch typing very easy
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1111 AUTOMATION? n Next on the scene, were desktop adding machines n First we hand cranked to record the information n Then we went electronic
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1313 AUTOMATION? n The “pocket” calculator showed up in 1970!
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1414 THE COMPUTER n Computers appeared in the 1940’s n They manipulate data by representing the data with electrical impulses n Since electricity is either off or on that necessitates the use of binary code or bits n To represent numbers, uppercase alphabetic characters, lowercase alphabetic characters, punctuation marks and other special characters with zeroes and ones grouped in bytes (8 bits)
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1515 First Generation Computers n From 1940 to 1956, computers were built with vacuum tubes for the electrical circuitry and magnetic drums for memory n They filled large rooms n They generated a great deal of heat n They used large amounts of electricity n They could solve one problem at a time n Input was done with punched cards or paper tape, and output was printed n Used machine language programs
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1919 First Generation Computers n 1945 The ENIAC ( E lectronic N umerical I ntegrator a nd C alculator) n Built at the University of Pennsylvania to calculate Army mortar ballistic tables n Performed 5,000 arithmetic operations a second n Built in 40 filing cabinets and weighed 30 tons n Had 18,000 vacuum tubes
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2020
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2121
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2222 Second Generation Computers n From 1956 to 1963, computers used transistors for the electrical circuitry
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CH2_SelfStudy_NoNarr_ComputerHistory - CHAPTER 2 SELF-STUDY...

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