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02+History+of+Technology

02+History+of+Technology - SOSC111 Science Technology...

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SOSC111 Science, Technology & Society Lecture 2 History of Technology
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Anthropology In examining early human evolution, anthropologists and archeologists have little direct evidence: Fossil remains Stone tools For anthropologists, tool-use helps define human evolution. They have found that tools actually predate the development of modern humans.
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Stone Age Hi-Tech Oldest known tools, about 2 million years ago (Homo habilis). Simple stone tools. Fire and complex stone tools, 1.5 million years ago (Homo erectus). Early “tool kits,” 75,000 to 40,000 years ago (Neanderthal). Stone tools that could make more tools out of bone and wood.
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Great Inventions Clothing : Fur to keep you warm Fire : To cook food and also to keep you warm Spear and knife: To hunt animals Bone flute : Playing music Color pigments: To paint
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Beijing Man – Up to 700.000 Years Ago Discovered in cave deposits at Zhoukoudian, near Beijing Probably practiced controlled use of fire , as indicated by burned bones Suggests very early use of fire
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Cave Paintings in Lascaux, France Paintings with more than 2000 figures, about 16,000 years old Shows animals and hunters Hunters are using bow and arrows
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Neolithic Revolution 8,000 years ago -- not that long ago! A shift from hunting and gathering to a settled way of life. Beginning of farming and agriculture Beginning of permanent villages
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Even More Great Inventions! The first known wheel was invented in 8000 B.C. by the Sumerians (in present-day Iraq) Fermentation of grapes led to the production of wine
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The rise of ancient civilizations 3,500 to 3,000 BC (5,500 to 5,000 years ago). Most of these civilizations were located in major river valleys, such as the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow River.
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Hydraulic Societies Strong link between political control and the technologies of irrigation and water transport. We sometimes call these “irrigation civilizations” or “Hydraulic Societies” In China, irrigation and shipping canals were both extremely important for the economy Irrigation systems required an organized and powerful government to build and maintain, thus reinforcing the political control of the rulers.
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The Grand Canal The World’s oldest and longest canal (1.795 km) Completed by Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty, in 605-610 AD
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Developments in Architecture and Infrastructure Monumental Architecture Egyptian Pyramids Great Wall of China Medieval Cathedrals Infrastructure Roads Irrigation systems Urban water supply
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Better Technology, Stronger Society Military Technologies Knives, swords Fortresses and walled cities Catapults, cannons, and muskets Transportation Ships and Navigation Agriculture New and better plants (wheat, rice) Irrigation , rotation of crops, fertilizers
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Nomadic Societies People who live in places where it is difficult to settle and grow crops Deserts, plains or high mountains Perfected technology for this environment Hunting or livestock technology Temporary housing Transportation and trade
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A Mongolian Yurt (Ger)
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Many important technological developments… Mining and Metallurgy Bronze (Bronze age: 3500-1300 BC) Iron (Iron age:
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