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02 History of Techno - SOSC111 Science Technology& Society Lecture 2 History of Technology Anthropology ¬ In examining early human evolution

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Unformatted text preview: SOSC111 Science, Technology & Society Lecture 2 History of Technology Anthropology ¬° In examining early human evolution, anthropologists and archeologists have little direct evidence: ¬° Fossil remains ¬° Stone tools ¬° For anthropologists, tool-use helps define human evolution. ¬° They have found that tools actually predate the development of modern humans. Stone Age Hi-Tech ¬° Oldest known tools, about 2 million years ago (Homo habilis). Simple stone tools. ¬° Fire and complex stone tools, 1.5 million years ago (Homo erectus). ¬° Early ‚Äútool kits,‚ÄĚ 75,000 to 40,000 years ago (Neanderthal). ¬° Stone tools that could make more tools out of bone and wood. Great Inventions ¬° Clothing : Fur to keep you warm ¬° Fire : To cook food and also to keep you warm ¬° Spear and knife: To hunt animals ¬° Bone flute : Playing music ¬° Color pigments: To paint Beijing Man ‚Äď Up to 700.000 Years Ago ¬° Discovered in cave deposits at Zhoukoudian, near Beijing ¬° Probably practiced controlled use of fire , as indicated by burned bones ¬° Suggests very early use of fire Cave Paintings in Lascaux, France ¬° Paintings with more than 2000 figures, about 16,000 years old ¬° Shows animals and hunters ¬° Hunters are using bow and arrows Neolithic Revolution ¬° 8,000 years ago -- not that long ago! ¬° A shift from hunting and gathering to a settled way of life. ¬° Beginning of farming and agriculture ¬° Beginning of permanent villages Even More Great Inventions! ¬° The first known wheel was invented in 8000 B.C. by the Sumerians (in present-day Iraq) ¬° Fermentation of grapes led to the production of wine The rise of ancient civilizations ¬° 3,500 to 3,000 BC (5,500 to 5,000 years ago). ¬° Most of these civilizations were located in major river valleys, such as the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow River. Hydraulic Societies ¬° Strong link between political control and the technologies of irrigation and water transport. We sometimes call these ‚Äúirrigation civilizations‚ÄĚ or ‚ÄúHydraulic Societies‚ÄĚ ¬° In China, irrigation and shipping canals were both extremely important for the economy ¬° Irrigation systems required an organized and powerful government to build and maintain, thus reinforcing the political control of the rulers. The Grand Canal ¬° The World‚Äôs oldest and longest canal (1.795 km) ¬° Completed by Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty, in 605-610 AD Developments in Architecture and Infrastructure ¬° Monumental Architecture ¬° Egyptian Pyramids ¬° Great Wall of China ¬° Medieval Cathedrals ¬° Infrastructure ¬° Roads ¬° Irrigation systems ¬° Urban water supply Better Technology, Stronger Society ¬° Military Technologies ¬° Knives, swords ¬° Fortresses and walled cities ¬° Catapults, cannons, and muskets ¬° Transportation ¬° Ships and Navigation ¬° Agriculture ¬° New and better plants (wheat, rice) ¬° Irrigation , rotation of crops, fertilizers Nomadic Societies ¬° People who live in places where it is difficult to settle and grow crops ¬° Deserts,...
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2011 for the course SOS 111 taught by Professor Bark during the Summer '08 term at HKU.

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02 History of Techno - SOSC111 Science Technology& Society Lecture 2 History of Technology Anthropology ¬ In examining early human evolution

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