Revision_Lecture_2009

Revision_Lecture_2009 - Click to edit Master subtitle style...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style Revision Lecture ACC3116/5216- Note: Everything in these slides is examinable but exam questions may come from material outside these slides. PPT slides #14, #43 to #45 are completely new (not in regular lecture slides) Marx’s theory of alienation §- “Alienation”, meaning “separated from”, has an unclear and varied meaning in modern times. But the young Marx defined it precisely in terms of his economic theory as follows: §- Under the capitalist mode of production, the worker is alienated in four ways (Karl Marx, “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts”, in Early Writings , Penguin Classics, 1975, pp. 279-400 [1844]): § (a) from the means of production; (b) from the products produced; (c) from her/his true nature; and (d) from other workers. Freud’s perspective on wholeness §- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), psychologist, also spoke of the three parts of a human’s mind: id (source of desires, Sex, life perseveration and death drive), ego (processing centre) and superego (conscious and enforcer of socialization norms) (see “The Ego and the Id” on Wikipedia). §- For Freud and his followers, a person must develop a strong and integrated ego so as to control her/his own desires and live in a society. A childish split or fragmented ego separates people into all good and all bad and is a sign of mental illness (Melanie Klein). Alienation and wholeness §- Hence both Marx and Freud saw alienation as harmful and wholeness and integration as desirable; Marx took an economic perspective and Freud a psychological perspective. §- From the psychological perspective, people and organizations that are whole and integrated make better decisions and are at peace, at rest. If the profit motive becomes too dominant, the organization’s health suffers as the human and social aspects get repressed. “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” by Leo Tolstoy (1886) §- In this story 40 year old Ivan is a magistrate in a court and finds that he has a terminal illness. Of course this devastates him and he can’t find a reason for it. He believes his life has been faultless. Why did this happen? §- Ivan managed to completely separate his personal and professional life. At work he sucked up to the bosses and did only what his duty required, never more. He tried to create good impressions on those that mattered. The Death of Ivan Ilyich §- Ivan thought life was so unfair. When the doctors came he expected and received professional discourses that admitted no fault and gave no precise answers. Yet he saw through the falseness of such discourses. §- At the end Ivan, by no means an evil man, acknowledges that his life has been built around false pretences. He reaches out in compassion to touch his son’s head, asks his wife for forgiveness, and then peacefully dies. “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” §- Ivan was an alienated person and a careerist: an Ivan at work and an Ivan at home, an Ivan with superiors and an Ivan with inferiors. By contrast, his caring and an Ivan with inferiors....
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course MGMT 2027 taught by Professor Shak during the Three '07 term at Queensland.

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